Now showing items 1-9 of 9

    • Article

      Changes in plasma osmolality and chloride concentration during abrupt transfer of milkfish (Chanos chanos) from seawater to different test salinities 

      RP Ferraris, JM Almendras & AP Jazul - Aquaculture, 1988 - Elsevier
      Milkfish juveniles (40, 120 or 260 g) were acclimated to 32 ppt seawater, then abruptly transferred to water with salinities of 0, 16, 32 (control) or 48 ppt. Blood samples were taken 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 or 14 days after transfer. Survival rate was 95% or greater in all salinities. Plasma osmolality in fish exposed to salinities other than 16 or 32 ppt deviated from control values immediately after transfer but were subsequently regulated to near normal levels after several days. Although these deviations were significant, they were relatively small (≤20% of initial) as plasma osmolality changed by less than 0.07 mOsm/kg per unit change environmental salinity. Plasma chloride values generally followed the same pattern of changes as plasma osmolality. When these deviations were integrated across time, summed deviations (mOsm·day kg−1 or mEq·day l−1) were proportional to the osmotic or ionic gradient but were inversely proportional to size. For 40-g fish, summed deviations were larger in 48 than in 0 ppt; for 120- or 260-g fish, these deviations were larger in 0 than in 48 ppt. These results indicate that small milkfish tend to adapt better to fresh than to hypersaline water while larger milkfish are more likely to find hypersaline water less stressful than freshwater. Like other organ systems previously studied in milkfish, these size-dependent adaptations in osmoregulatory mechanisms reflect natural habitat shifts during development.
    • Article

      Development of the digestive tract of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): Histology and histochemistry 

      RP Ferraris, JD Tan & MC de la Cruz - Aquaculture, 1987 - Elsevier
      The digestive tract of the newly hatched milkfish larva is a simple undifferentiated tube. Three days after hatching, differentiation of the esophagus begins with development of mucous-secreting cells. At this time, the intestine can be distinguished from the anterior portion of the digestive tract by its tall columnar cells with centrally located nuclei and brush border with cytoplasmic projections. After 14 days, mucosal folds develop in the esophagus. In 21-day-old larvae, the stomach differentiates into the cardiac and pyloric regions while goblet cells start to develop in the intestine. In fish undergoing metamorphosis (≥ 42 days old), the mucosal cells of the cardiac stomach develop into two distinct cell types: the columnar cells which make up the folds nearest the lumen, and the cuboidal cells which constitute the gastric glands. The cardiac stomach is the only region in the digestive tract where mucus secretion is not acidic. From 3-day-old larvae up to the older stages, alkaline phosphatase is localized only at the brush border of the intestinal epithelial cells. Aminopeptidase is also found only in the brush border of enterocytes, but only in 21-day and older milkfish. Intestinal esterases are present not only in the brush border but are also diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of enterocytes of 3-day or older fish. Esterase is also found in both the columnar and gland cells of the cardiac stomach, but only in postmetamorphic (60-day or older) fish. These morphological and histochemical changes of the gut seem to parallel dietary and habitat shifts throughout development, which encompasses life stages spent in pelagic, coastal or inland waters.
    • Article

      Digestibility in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): Effects of protein source, fish size and salinity 

      RP Ferraris, MR Catacutan, RL Mabelin & AP Jazul - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      The true digestibility of casein, gelatin, fish meal, defatted soybean meal and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal was measured in 60- and 175-g milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) in fresh- and seawater. The diets contained 45% of these feedstuffs and 1.3% of the indicator substance, chromic oxide. The intestinal dissection method was used to collect fecal material. Results showed that the length of time between initial feeding and fish sacrifice did not significantly affect digestibility. Gelatin was the most digestible (90–98%) protein, regardless of size. Casein, defatted soybean meal and fish meal were moderately digestible (50–90%) and digestibility coefficients tended to increase as a function of fish size. L. leucocephala was the least digestible (−10–40%). The digestibility of most of these feedstuffs was less in the anterior than in the posterior intestine, and tended to be lower in seawater than in freshwater. Rate of food movement was similar in both size groups, but was significantly faster when milkfish were in seawater rather than in freshwater. The effect of salinity on digestibility may in part be due to food motility changes necessitated by alterations in osmoregulatory processes when fish are in seawater.
    • Article

      Effect of salinity on hemolymph calcium concentration during the molt cycle of the prawn Penaeus monodon 

      FD Parado-Estepa, JM Ladja, EG de Jesus & RP Ferraris - Marine Biology, 1989 - Springer Verlag
      Prawns (Penaeus monodon) were obtained from ponds in Iloilo, Philippines, in 1984 and 1985 and maintained in salinities from 8 to 44‰. Total hemolymph calcium was largely affected by molt stage and less so by salinity. A sharp, transient increase in hemolymph calcium occurred 3 to 6 h postmolt, followed by an equally rapid decrease from 6 h postmolt to intermolt. This biphasis response was limited to prawns in 8, 20 and 32‰S; in 44‰S, hemolymph calcium remained the same throughout the sampling period. Peak concentrations of total calcium were greater in low (8 and 20‰S) than in high salinities. Salinity had no effect on the duration of molt cycle nor on time of occurrence of molt. Almost half of molting incidents occurred between 18.01 and 0.00 hrs, and one-third between 0.01 and 06.00 hrs.
    • Article

      Effect of salinity on the osmotic, chloride, total protein and calcium concentrations in the hemolymph of the prawn Peneaus monodon (Fabricius) 

      RP Ferraris, FD Parado-Estepa, JM Ladja & EG de Jesus - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 1986 - Elsevier
      1. Osmolality and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph of Penaeus monodon became stable 1 day after molting in 32 ppt, while total protein and calcium concentrations remained stable throughout the molting cycle. When intermolt (≥ 36 hr postmolt) animals were transferred from control (32 ppt) to experimental (8–40 ppt) salinities, osmolality, chloride and total protein, but not calcium, concentrations in the hemolymph achieved steady state values 24–48 hr after transfer.

      2. The hemolymph osmolality was a linear function (slope = 0.28) of medium osmolality at salinities between 8 and 40 ppt. It was isosmotic to seawater at 698 mOsm (10 g prawns) and 752 mOsm (30 g), and was hyperosmotic to the medium below isosmotic concentrations, and hypoosmotic to those above.

      3. Hemolymph chloride concentration was isoionic to seawater at 334 mM, and was hyperregulated below isoionic concentrations, and hyporegulated to those above.

      4. P. monodon maintained its hemolymph calcium concentration between 6.4 and 10 mM when medium salinities increased from 8 to 40 ppt.

      5. Total protein concentration in the hemolymph was independent of medium salinity (8–40 ppt) and hemolymph osmolality (540–850 mOsm).
    • Article

      Intestinal glucose transport in carnivorous and herbivorous marine fishes 

      RP Ferraris & GA Ahearn - Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology, 1983 - Springer Verlag
      The influx and transepithelial movements of glucose and their effects on the electrophysiology and Na transport in upper and lower intestines of the herbivorous surgeonfish, Acanthurus mata , and carnivorous eel, Gymnothorax undulatus , were measured. The K t G and J max G of glucose influx into the tissues were higher in the surgeonfish upper intestine than in the surgeonfish lower intestine or in both segments of the eel intestine. A prominent diffusion-like transport component was also measured in all four segments during influx experiments. Net transepithelial glucose fluxes (0.05 mM) were greater in eel intestine than in those of the surgeonfish largely due to an apparent lower apical membrane permeability of the former coincident with reduced backflux of glucose from epithelium to lumen. All four stripped intestinal segments exhibited non-significant (from zero; P >0.05) or small, serosa-negative transepithelial potential differences (-0.1 to -2.2 mV), and low transepithelial resistances (40–88 O cm -2 ). Each tissue displayed significant ( P P >0.05) change the transepithelial resistance, but did induce a significant ( P J net Na with added luminal glucose, these increased net cation fluxes were not quite significant ( P >0.05). It is concluded that coupled Na-glucose transport occurs in these tissues, but that metabolic enhancement of unrelated current-generating mechanisms also takes place and may modify depolarizing effects of organic solute transfer.
    • Article

      Phosphorus utilization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed practical diets and its consequences on effluent phosphorus levels 

      RM Coloso, K King, JW Fletcher, MA Hendrix, M Subramanyam, P Weis & RP Ferraris - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      Excessive dietary phosphorous (P) concentrations in effluents from aquaculture present a major environmental problem. We therefore studied the effect of dietary P and vitamin D3 on P utilization by rainbow trout-fed practical diets and on P concentrations in the soluble, particulate and settleable components of the effluent from fish tanks. Rainbow trout (average weight: 78 g, initial biomass: 13 kg in 0.7 m3 tanks) were fed for 11 weeks, practical diets that varied in total P, available P, and vitamin D3 concentrations. Soluble, particulate (10–200 μm) and settleable (>200 μm) P in the effluent were sampled every 0.5–6 h for 1–3 days in the third and eleventh weeks of the experiment. Trout in all diets more than doubled their weight after 11 weeks. Increasing the concentrations of available dietary P from 0.24% to 0.88% modestly enhanced growth rate. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and biomass gain per gram P consumed decreased as dietary P concentrations increased. Carcass P, daily P gain, and plasma P concentrations were lower in fish fed with low P diets. Soluble P concentrations in the effluent peaked immediately after and again 4–6 h after feeding, and is a linear function of available dietary P. No soluble P would be produced during consumption of diets containing less than 0.22±0.02% available P. Above this dietary concentration, soluble P would be excreted at 6.9±0.4 mg/day/kg for each 0.1% increase in available dietary P. Particulate P concentrations in the effluent were independent of dietary P concentrations. Settleable, presumably fecal, P concentrations tended to increase with dietary P concentrations. In trout fed with low P (0.24% available P, 0.6% total P) diets, 60% of total dietary P were retained by the fish and the remaining 40% were excreted in the effluent as settleable P (20–30%) and particulate or soluble P (10–20%). In trout fed with high P (0.59–0.88% available P; 0.9–1.2% total P) diets, 30–55% of total dietary P was retained by fish, and the remaining 15–25% appeared in the effluent as settleable P, 20–55% as soluble P, and 5–10% as particulate P. Vitamin D3 did not affect fish growth nor effluent P levels. Physicochemical management of aquaculture effluents should consider the effect of diets on partitioning of effluent P, the peaks of soluble P concentration following feeding, and the contributions of particulate P to total P in the effluent. Increasing our understanding of how dietary P is utilized and is subsequently partitioned in the effluent can contribute significantly towards alleviating this important environmental and industry problem.
    • Article

      Responses of intermolt Penaeus indicus to large fluctuations in environmental salinity 

      FD Parado-Estepa, RP Ferraris, JM Ladja & EG de Jesus - Aquaculture, 1987 - Elsevier
      The osmotic and chloride regulation by 5- to 10-g intermolt Penaeus indicus was investigated by abruptly changing medium salinity from seawater (32 ppt) to test salinities of 8, 20, 32 (control) or 40 ppt. Hemolymph samples were taken at 0, and then at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 days after the change in salinity, and were analyzed for osmolality and chloride concentrations. Tissue water content was also determined. Throughout the study period, daily mortality was low (1.8%), and was the same among control and experimental salinities. Hemolymph osmolality and chloride as well as tissue water content were stable within 0.25 to 0.5 days after the abrupt salinity change, except for tissue water content at 8 ppt which did not reach a steady state for 2 days. Intermolt P. indicus exhibited hyperosmotic or hyperionic regulation in salinities below isosmotic or isoionic salinities, and hypoosmotic or hypoionic regulation in those above. Hemolymph osmolality and chloride were positive linear functions of external osmolality and chloride concentrations (slope=0.24±0.02 and 0.20±0.02, respectively). Isosmotic and isoionic values were 780 mOsm/kg and 330 mM, respectively. Percentage tissue water decreased as a function of external osmolality (−0.0056% kg mOsm−1) and hemolymph osmolality (−0.0232% kg mOsm−1), indicating that tissue cells were relatively permeable to hemolymph water, and that the hemolymph acted as a barrier to buffer the cells from large fluctuations in external salinity. These results indicate that, like many penaeids, P. indicus is a good osmoregulator suitable for culture in brackishwater ponds where there are large fluctuations in salinity.
    • Article

      Sugar and amino acid transport in fish intestine 

      RP Ferraris & GA Ahearn - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 1984 - Elsevier
      1. Morphological properties of fish intestines vary with diet. Carnivores have short guts with highly elaborate mucosal folding in the upper intestines; herbivores have long guts which appear structurally uniform from stomach to rectum.

      2. Brush border membranes of many fish intestines display at least two transport processes for each organic solute, one an Na+-dependent, saturable carrier mechanism, and the other a non-saturable influx pathway which may be simple diffusion.

      3. Intestinal epithelial cells from freshwater fish can accumulate nutrients to concentrations in excess of those in the gut lumen; those of marine fish can not.

      4. Net transepithelial nutrient transport in upper intestine is greater in freshwater fish than in marine forms as a result of considerable solute backflux from epithelium to lumen in the latter.

      5. In many fish the lower intestine displays a significant net transmural flux of nutrients that may contribute to total organic solute absorption.

      6. Intestines of freshwater fish have a serosa positive (relative to mucosa) electrical potential difference; marine fish display a negative serosa.

      7. Addition of organic solutes to intestines of freshwater fish hyperpolarizes the electrically positive serosa; in marine forms a depolarization of the serosa negative potential occurs. In both cases this appears due to increased net transmural sodium transport coupled to net nutrient flow.