Now showing items 1-20 of 54

    • Book chapter

      Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was conducted to determine the quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in grouper diets, based on their nutrient composition and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD). A total of 56 juveniles were used for the 1st batch of test ingredients (Chilean fish meal, white fish meal, shrimp meal, defatted soyabean oilmeal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal). 54, 72 and 48 juveniles were used for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th batches of test ingredients (squid meal, local meat and bone meal, meat solubles, soya protein concentrates and rice bran; tuna fish meal, imported meat and bone meal, blood meal, maize gluten meal and wheat flour; and poultry feather meal, lupin seed meal and maize germ meal, respectively). Apparent digestibility coefficients were measured in vivo. The apparent digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 37-99%. Squid meal and meat solubles had the highest coefficients, whereas blood meal had the lowest. The APD of all feed ingredients tested were relatively high (79-99%), except for rice bran (43%) and blood meal (15%). ADMD values varied with the levels of fibre and other carbohydrate substances in the feed ingredients. Groupers could utilize dietary protein efficiently regardless of whether it was of animal or plant origin. High APD values were generally obtained in feed ingredients with high protein content. Low digestibility coefficients for feed ingredients could also be attributed to the processing methods used in their preparation.
    • Article

      Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - Aquaculture Research, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for dry matter (ADCdm) and crude protein (ADCcp) of selected feed ingredients were determined in vivo for grouper using passive faeces collection (Guelph System). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF and 30% test ingredient) with 1% Cr2O3 as an inert indicator were used. An RF contained 45% protein, 10% fat and 15.7 kJ g−1 metabolizable energy. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, each contained a test ingredient (white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal), were used in a growth study based on ADCcp of feed ingredients. An RF without Cr2O3 was a control. The ADC values of experimental diets were also determined. In grouper, the ADCdm of white cowpea meal, defatted soybean meal, wheat flour and shrimp meal (74–76%) were significantly lower than that of squid meal (99%), but comparable with those of the fish meals (84–89%). No significant difference was observed between the ADCdm of ipil-ipil leaf meal, rice bran and wheat flour (56–73%). The ADCcp of white cowpea meal and defatted soybean meal were similar to those of the fish meals, squid meal and shrimp meal (94–99%). The ADCcp of wheat flour was comparable with that of ipil-ipil leaf meal (79–83%). Rice bran had the lowest ADCcp value of 43%. Based on specific growth rate (SGR), the growth of fish fed white cowpea meal-based diets was similar to that of the control fish (3.2–3.3% day−1). Also, no significant difference was observed between the ADCdm (68–72%) and ADCcp (88–91%) of white cowpea meal-based diet and the control diet. The results suggest that ADC values can be used as indicators to determine the nutritional value of feed ingredients. White cowpea meal can be incorporated as a protein source in practical diet for grouper at 20.5% of the diet with no adverse effect on growth.
    • Article

      Contribution of natural food and supplemental feed to the gut content of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in a semi-intensive pond system in the Philippines 

      U Focken, A Groth, RM Coloso & K Becker - Aquaculture, 1998 - Elsevier
      Juvenile Penaeus monodon were stocked in grow-out ponds and fed a compound diet at high rates for 19 weeks under semi-intensive conditions. At three stages of the rearing period (weeks 6, 11 and 16), the gut content of the shrimp was analysed microscopically at every hour of the day. Additionally, possible sources of natural food (lablab, lumut, zoobenthos, etc.) were analysed microscopically and where possible for proximate composition. At week 6, the gut content consisted of 28.9% supplemental feed, 42.3% plant materials (other than from the pelleted diet), 1.8% crustacean parts and 27.0% diverse detrital matter. For week 11, the percentages (same order) were 47.5%, 21.1%, 22.8%, 8.6% and for week 16, 21.7%, 34.3%, 31.7% and 12.9%, respectively. Food preference did not change with time of the day. At week 6, most feeding activity occurred at night, later, feeding activity shifted to day-time. Reduction of the maximum gut content at dissolved oxygen levels below 4 mg l−1 at night indicated a cessation of feeding in which case shrimp fed during the day-time, when dissolved oxygen levels were higher.
    • Article

      Cysteine concentration regulates cysteine metabolism to glutathione, sulfate and taurine in rat hepatocytes 

      MH Stipanuk, RM Coloso, RAG Garcia & MF Banks - Journal of Nutrition, 1992 - American Society for Nutrition
      The effect of cysteine concentration and cysteine source [cysteine, methionine or 2-oxo-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC)] on the metabolism of [35S]cysteine was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. Production of each of the major metabolites of cysteine (glutathione, sulfate, taurine) increased as cysteine or methionine, but not OTC, concentration in the medium was increased. At equimolar exogenous substrate concentrations, cysteine availability to hepatocytes was greater from exogenous cysteine than from methionine, and that from methionine was greater than from OTC. The partitioning of cysteine, or the percentage of total metabolism resulting in production of each of the major metabolites, was markedly affected by cysteine concentration or availability. Low cysteine availability favored its utilization for glutathione; high cysteine availability favored its catabolism to sulfate and taurine. Under conditions of low cysteine availability (incubations with 0.2 mmol/L OTC), glutathione, sulfate and taurine production accounted for 90, 10 and 1%, respectively, of total metabolism. Under conditions of high cysteine availability (incubations with 1 mmol/L cysteine + bathocuproine disulfonate), glutathione, sulfate and taurine production accounted for 19, 47 and 34%, respectively, of total metabolism. Cysteine supplied as such and cysteine formed intracellularly from methionine were similarly partitioned. These studies demonstrate that methionine is not a superior substrate to cysteine for hepatic glutathione synthesis and that cysteine concentration (presumably intracellular cysteine concentration) has a major effect on the partitioning of cysteine sulfur to taurine in rat hepatocytes.
    • Article

      Dietary P regulates phosphate transporter expression, phosphatase activity, and effluent P partitioning in trout culture 

      RM Coloso, K King, JW Fletcher, P Weis, A Werner & RP Ferraris - Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology, 2003 - Springer Verlag
      Phosphate utilization by fish is an important issue because of its critical roles in fish growth and aquatic environmental pollution. High dietary phosphorus (P) levels typically decrease the efficiency of P utilization, thereby increasing the amount of P excreted as metabolic waste in effluents emanating from rainbow trout aquaculture. In mammals, vitamin D3 is a known regulator of P utilization but in fish, its regulatory role is unclear. Moreover, the effects of dietary P and vitamin D3 on expression of enzymatic and transport systems potentially involved in phosphate utilization are little known. We therefore monitored production of effluent P, levels of plasma vitamin D3 metabolites, as well as expression of phosphatases and the sodium phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2) in trout fed semipu diets that varied in dietary P and vitamin D3 levels. Mean soluble P concentrations varied markedly with dietary P but not with vitamin D3, and constituted 40–70% of total effluent P production by trout. Particulate P concentrations accounted for 25–50% of effluent P production, but did not vary with dietary P or vitamin D3. P in settleable wastes accounted for <10% of effluent P. The stronger effect of dietary P on effluent P levels is paralleled by its striking effects on phosphatases and NaPi2. The mRNA abundance of the intestinal and renal sodium phosphate transporters increased in fish fed low dietary P; vitamin D3 had no effect. Low-P diets reduced plasma phosphate concentrations. Intracellular phytase activity increased but brushborder alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in the intestine, pyloric caeca, and gills of trout fed diets containing low dietary P. Vitamin D3 had no effect on enzyme activities. Moreover, plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were unaffected by dietary P and vitamin D3 levels. The major regulator of P metabolism, and ultimately of levels of P in the effluent from trout culture, is dietary P.
    • Article

      Dietary requirements of rainbow trout for tryptophan, lysine and arginine determined by growth and biochemical measurements 

      MJ Walton, CB Cowey, RM Coloso & JW Adron - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 1986 - Springer Verlag
      Three separate studies were performed to determine the dietary requirements of rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri for tryptophan (Trp), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) from both growth and biochemical data. The growth studies were carried out over a 12 week period. From graphical plots of % mean weight gain against % amino acid in diet the following requirement values were obtained, Trp 0.25% diet (0.4% dietary crude protein); Lys 1.9% diet (4.3% dietary protein); and Arg 1.6–1.8% diet (3.6–4% dietary protein). Plasma and liver amino acid concentrations measured 20h after feeding did not prove useful for determination of requirement values. Hepatic activities of Trp pyrrolase (TP), Lys α ketoglutarate reductase (LKGR) and arginase were not significantly affected by varying levels of Trp, Lys and Arg respectively in the diet. TP has a cytosolic location and a Km of 0.2 mM for Trp; LKGR is mitochondrial and the Km for Lys is 7.3 mM; arginase is also mitochondrial and has a Km of 4.9 mM for arginine. Measurements of expired14CO2, after injection of a tracer dose of14C amino acid, did allow estimates of requirement levels to be made. The values obtained from the oxidation studies reinforced the values obtained from the growth data but were not precise enough to justify using this method on its own.
    • Article

      Diurnal feeding pattern and gut content of milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) cultured semi-intensively during the wet and dry season in brackish ponds in the Philippines 

      KJ Kühlmann, U Focken, RM Coloso & K Becker - Aquaculture Research, 2008 - Blackwell Publishing
      To improve feeding management and reduce feed cost in semi-intensive grow-out culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskål 1775) in brackish ponds, the relative shares of natural food (NF) and supplemental feed (SF) ingested by the fish were microscopically quantified from their completely dissected digestive tracts sampled during 24-h cycles in wet (June–September) and dry (December–April) seasons. Particles from rice husk, indigestible to milkfish, were used as internal markers to quantify supplemental feed. Significantly (P<0.05) more NF than SF (1.4±0.2 vs. 0.4±0.1 g kg−0.8) and SF than NF (1.4±0.8 vs. 0.6±0.3 g kg−0.8) were found during the first month of the wet and the first 3 months of the dry season respectively. Diurnal feeding patterns on SF were significantly higher at morning hours during the dry compared with the wet season. The feeding pattern of milkfish is likely to be affected by the different weather and pond conditions in both seasons. Developing a season-specific pond fertilization management to enhance NF availability in semi-intensive milkfish culture can help to improve the economical and ecological performance of milkfish culture.
    • Article

      Effect of dietary phosphorus and vitamin D3 on phosphorus levels in effluent from the experimental culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 

      RM Coloso, SP Basantes, K King, MA Hendrix, JW Fletcher, P Weis & RP Ferraris - Aquaculture, 2001 - Elsevier
      Excessive phosphorus (P) levels in aquaculture effluents violate federally mandated limits and pose a serious threat to the freshwater environment. In rainbow trout culture, effluent P probably originates as fecal and metabolic waste product because assimilation of dietary P is relatively low. We therefore decreased dietary P and increased dietary vitamin D3 levels, methods that enhance P assimilation in mammals, in purified and semi-purified trout diets, then monitored effluent P. Soluble effluent P reached a peak right after feeding and returned to baseline levels in between feeding times. The peak and average concentrations of soluble P in the effluent were mainly influenced by dietary P. Average P in fecal dry matter also decreased with dietary P. Neither dietary P nor vitamin D3 under the conditions of the experiment had significant effects on whole body P content but P deposition (as a percentage of P intake) decreased with increased dietary P. The dietary combination of low P and high vitamin D3 decreased soluble and fecal P levels in the effluent indicating a strategy whereby effluent P concentrations can be reduced by regulation of P metabolism.
    • Article

      Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer 

      MR Catacutan & RM Coloso - Aquaculture, 1995 - Elsevier
      The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.
    • Article

      The effect of dietary protein-energy levels on growth and metabolism of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) 

      RM Coloso, LV Benitez & LB Tiro - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 1988 - Elsevier
      1. Groups of milkfish juveniles (mean weight, 2.8 g) were fed diets containing white fishmeal and gelatin with varying protein-energy to total metabolizable energy (PE:TME) ratios.

      2. Amino acids were incorporated in the diets to stimulate the pattern of milkfish protein. The control diet contained fishmeal as sole protein source and was not supplemented with amino acids.

      3. Among the amino acid supplemented diets, best growth was observed at PE:TME ratio of 44.4%. However, the control diet gave better growth rate than any of the amino acid supplemented diets.

      4. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) increased significantly with increase in dietary protein-energy level.
    • Article

      Effect of some physico-chemical factors on the survival and growth of Penaeus monodon postlarvae 

      FF Catedral, R Coloso, N Valera, CM Casalmir & AT Quibuyen - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Growth and survival rates of P. monodon postlarvae were examined at different temperatures, salinities, and nitrite and ammonia concentrations, using one feed level. Condition of postlarvae greatly affected the experimental results shown in some instances where very low survival rates were obtained, even for the controls. Results indicated that postlarvae from P10 and up can tolerate salinity changes of 10 to 20 ppt without prior acclimation. Survival generally appears the same for temperatures between 24 and 36°C. It appears that P. monodon postlarvae have higher temperature tolerance. Tolerance of postlarvae at the early postlarval stage is between 30 and 50 ppm of nitrate. They were more tolerant from P10 upwards. Although survival was high in runs containing nitrite, growing appears to have been affected. Postlarvae could tolerate ammonia concentrations up to about 50 ppm. At 100 ppm higher mortality rates were observed. Whether or not there was any permanent effect by nitrate and ammonia at high but apparently tolerable levels is not known.
    • Article

      Effects of dietary l-tryptophan on the agonistic behavior, growth and survival of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata 

      JLQ Laranja Jr., ET Quinitio, MR Catacutan & RM Coloso - Aquaculture, 2010 - Elsevier
      The reduction of the survival of mud crab during culture has been largely attributed to aggressive encounters and cannibalism. In some crustaceans, suppressed aggression is linked to increased concentration of circulating and brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Likewise, tryptophan (TRP), a precursor of 5-HT is reported to suppress the aggression and improve the survival of some cultured fish through dietary supplementation. We investigated the effects of feeding formulated diet with different TRP levels (0.32% as control, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% of dry diet) on the agonistic behavior, growth and survival of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata. Mud crabs were individually stocked and fed the experimental diets for 4 weeks before they were set to a one hour fight experiment. The fights were recorded using a video camera and the aggressiveness of the crabs was quantified. Hemolymph was sampled after 15 and 30 days of feeding (resting) and right after the fight to measure circulating 5-HT concentration. Higher TRP levels suppressed the aggressiveness of mud crab in a dose dependent manner. The intensity and frequency of attacks were both significantly lower (P < 0.05) in those given diets containing 0.75% and 1% TRP as compared with the control. Serotonin-ELISA assay revealed that 5-HT levels in the hemolymph before the fight (after 15 and 30 days; resting) were not significantly different between treatments. However after the fight, 5-HT concentration was significantly higher in TRP-supplemented mud crabs as compared with the control (0.5% = P < 0.05; 0.75% and 1% = P < 0.01). Furthermore, mud crabs (0.16 g BW) were reared in 0.40 m2 circular tanks at 20 crabs/tank and fed the experimental diets for 30 days to determine growth and survival. Survival was higher in TRP-supplemented mud crabs (0.5% = 35%, 0.75% = 33.33%, 1% = 35%) as compared with the control (18.33%). However, daily growth gain (DRG), relative growth rate (RGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were reduced in TRP-supplemented groups than with the control group. In conclusion, the data shows that the aggressive behavior of juvenile mud crab can be suppressed by supplementation of L-TRP. The survival of juvenile mud crab can be improved by increasing the level of TRP to 0.5%–1%. However, higher TRP levels may affect growth of mud crab. TRP supplementation resulted to a significant increase of 5-HT concentration in the hemolymph which was clearly observed after the fight suggesting that 5-HT plays an important role in suppressing the agonistic behavior of mud crab during aggressive encounters.
    • Article

      The effects of dietary tryptophan levels on growth and metabolism of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) 

      MJ Walton, RM Coloso, CB Cowey, JW Adron & D Knox - British Journal of Nutrition, 1984 - Cambridge University Press
      1. Groups of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) (mean weight 14 g) were given diets containing 0.8, 1.3, 2, 3, 4 or 6 g tryptophan/kg diet for 12 weeks.

      2. By analysis of the growth results, the dietary requirement of tryptophan was found to be 2.5 g/kg diet (equivalent to 50 mg/kg biomass per d).

      3. Carbon dioxide expired by trout following intraperitoneal injection of [14COOH]tryptophan contained little radioactivity when dietary tryptophan level was low but, above 2.0 g/kg diet, it increased rapidly with increasing dietary tryptophan level. The break point in the dose-response curve did not, however, coincide with that from the growth results.

      4. Changes in concentrations of free tryptophan in blood and liver and activity of hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase (EC 1.13.11.11) in response to changes in dietary tryptophan concentration did not provide reliable indicators for quantifying dietary requirement. Unlike the situation in mammals, blood tryptophan was not protein-bound to any appreciable extent. Tryptophan pyrrolase of trout has properties which suggest it has no apoenzyme form.

      5. In fish given adequate levels of tryptophan injected intraperitoneally with a tracer dose of [14COOH]tryptophan, 60% of the dose was incorporated into body protein within 1 d. The turnover of the label in this protein is very slow.

      6. Those trout given diets deficient in tryptophan suffered from severe scoliosis and lordosis as well as having increased liver and kidney levels of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium.
    • Conference paper

      Effects of different fat sources on the egg quality of grouper, Epinephelus suillus 

      GF Quinitio, RM Coloso, A Duller & D Reyes - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      The effect of different fat sources on the egg quality of grouper, Epinephelus suillus eggs was evaluated. Fish in three tanks, each containing 3 females and 1 male, were fed various types of feeds namely: trash fish (control), trash fish + cod liver oil (treatment 1) and trash fish + SELCO, a lipid emulsion containing high levels of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) (treatment 2).

      Approximately 77.9 million eggs spawned from January to October 1992 by the control group, 40.0 million by fish in treatment 1, and 36.4 million by the treatment 2 group. Egg production (0.45 million eggs/kg BW) among the control group was significantly higher than treatment 2. Egg production of treatment 1 (0.06-0.36 million eggs/kg BW) was not significantly different (P<0.01) from the control group nor treatment 2 (0.02-0.30 million eggs/kg BW). Fertilization and hatching rates showed significant differences among the three groups with control > treatment 1 > treatment 2. There were no differences detected in the egg and oil globule diameters among the treatments. Crude protein and lipid levels of floating (good) and sinking (bad) eggs collected in February to March 1992, and August to September 1992 were similar in all treatments. Unfed larvae from treatment 1 survived until the fifth day after hatching while those in the control and treatment 2 groups lasted only until the third day. These results suggest that supplementation of cod liver oil and SELCO in the trash fish diet of E. suillus broodstock does not influence egg production, fertilization and hatching rates, and egg quality.
    • Conference paper

      Egg quality of grouper Epinephelus coioides fed different fatty acid sources. 

      GF Quinitio, RM Coloso, NB Caberoy, JD Toledo & DM,J Reyes - In D MacKinlay & M Eldridge (Eds.), The Fish Egg: Its Biology and Culture Symposium Proceedings. International Congress on the Biology of Fishes, 14-18 July 1996, San Francisco State University, 1996 - American Fisheries Society, Physiology Section
      Quality of eggs spawned by Epinephelus coioides fed fish by catch (control). Cod liver oil-enriched fish by catch (TFC), and commercial HUFA A-enriched fish by catch (TFS) was monitored. Monthly egg production, spawning frequency, fertilization rate, egg viability, and hatching rates of the control were significantly higher compared to TFS Egg production. Spawning frequency and hatching rate of TC and TFS were not significantly different. Results suggest that varying the species of fish by catch could provide the requirements of E. Coioides broodstock so as to provide quality eggs.
    • magazineArticle

      Endosulfan: a hidden menace 

      RM Coloso - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2003 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      A clean and healthy environment is paramount to human existence. While pesticide use has successfully sustained agricultural and food production in our lifetime as well as safeguarded human health by controlling insect pests, it has also caused many tragedies including population declines in our wildlife, fatalities in workers exposed to pesticides in its manufacture and use, and the increasing incidence of dreaded human illnesses such as cancer. A delicate balance should be achieved to mitigate the adverse impact of pesticide use to the environment and at the same time ensuring short- and long-term agricultural productivity. Endosulfan has been effectively used as a pesticide, but much evidence on its chronic and sub-lethal effects on humans and wildlife have been gathered in recent years. More research still needs to be done to determine its effects from long-term exposure at very low levels. Endosulfan is highly toxic to fish and other aquatic animals and, thus, not recommended for use in aquatic ecosystems. However, in some countries, it has been incorrectly used as a molluscicide in rice paddies, which could have an adverse impact on the rice-fish farming systems and on other surrounding aquatic ecosystems. It is clear that such practices should be stopped and users must strictly observed the recommended application methods.

      Agricultural productivity should be achieved with less pesticide by using integrated pest management programs which make use of biological, cultural, and physical control agents and lower doses of safer pesticide on a need only basis. The benefits of biotechnology should also be used to develop more effective and safer products and techniques. This is a valid approach and one that will require a unified and concerted effort among suppliers and users of pesticides in order to ensure that resources are used to our best advantage with minimal risk.
    • Article

      Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Penaeus indicus 

      PS Eusebio & RM Coloso - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The potential of locally available legumes (white cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, and green mung-bean, Vigna radiata) and leaf meals (papaya, Carica papaya, and cassava, Manihut esculenta) in combination with defatted soybean meal as protein sources was evaluated in juvenile Penaeus indicus. The feedstuffs were included in practical diets for P. indicus, replacing 9% of the protein in the basal diet. Juvenile P. indicus (mean initial weight 0.08±0.01 g) were fed the practical diets for 61 days. Shrimp fed the control diet had the highest weight gain and specific growth rate, which did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from those of shrimp fed white cowpea meal, papaya leaf meal and cassava leaf meal. Survival of the control shrimp was significantly higher (p<0,05) than that of shrimp fed cassava and papaya leaf meals but comparable to that of shrimp fed white cowpea meal. The growth of shrimp given green mungbean meal was comparable to that of shrimp fed papaya leaf meal, however the shrimp fed mungbean meal had the lowest survival.

      The apparent protein digestibility (APD) of white cowpea meal (87%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control (82%) and cassava leaf meal (77%) based diets . However, the APD of the white cowpea meal based diet was comparable to those of the papaya leaf meal and green mungbean meal based diets. Results suggest that, besides digestibility, other factors such as the amino acid balance of the diet and the amount of anti-nutritional factors may influence the growth and survival of P. indicus.
    • Book chapter

      Evaluation of some terrestrial proteins in complete diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      This study was undertaken to determine the nutritive value of some of the more widely available protein sources in the diets for grouper juveniles, based on apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. A series of feeding experiments were conducted to determine the growth performance of grouper juveniles. Test diets were formulated for growth (4 replications/treatment) and digestibility experiments (3 replications/treatment). Each diet contained a test ingredient: white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal (experiment 1); local meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and meat solubles (experiment 2); and imported meal and bone meal, blood meal and maize gluten meal (experiment 3). A feeding trial for each experiment was conducted for 85 days in a flow-through system with filtered and aerated seawater. 10 and 20 juveniles were stocked in each of 60- and 250-litre fibreglass tanks, respectively. White cowpea meal (20.5% incorporation), local (16% incorporation) and imported (19% incorporation) meat and bone meals could partially replace fish meal in the diets for grouper juveniles without affecting their growth. Low ADMD and APD values for the processed feed ingredients (meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and blood meal-based diets) could be associated with the processing methods used in its preparation, which could damage the amino acids and contribute to low nitrogen digestibility. Apparent digestibility coefficients and growth could be used as indicators of the nutritional value of the feed ingredients. However, the availability and optimal balance of amino acids must also be considered.
    • Conference paper

      Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture 

      RM Coloso - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      As aquaculture production of tropical fish and crustacean species becomes more intensified, practical diets need to be formulated to be cost effective and environment-friendly. Ingredients should be included to satisfy the nutrient requirements of the animal, promote optimal fish growth, and boost the income of small-scale farmers and commercial producers with minimal impacts to the surrounding environment. Feed formulation for sustainable aquaculture should aim at increasing aquaculture system performance and profitability, enhancing the animals disease resistance, increasing attractability, palatability, and digestibility of practical diets, and maintaining environmental quality through sound feeding management and good aquaculture practices. More vigorous research and development efforts need to be supported to generate feed technologies that will ensure a steady and reliable supply of safe and high quality aquaculture products to the public while preserving the environment.
    • Book

      Fingerling production of hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) in earthen nursery ponds 

      EB Coniza, CL Marte, RM Coloso & FL Huervana - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual no. 45
      Fingerling production of milkfish in ponds maybe operated as a commercial enterprise or a component of milkfish farming that comprises nursery, transition and rearing or grow-out phases. The fishpond nursery is used to grow milkfish fry to fingerlings 1-3 g in weight or 1-2 inches in length. The nursery pond is the smallest of the major fishpond compartment ranging from 500 to 5,000 m2, and is about 10% of the total farming area. The pond is prepared with utmost care to eliminate predators and competitors. The area should have good topography, is free from flooding and should have soil with good water retention properties for good dike construction and efficient culture management. Water supply should be adequate year-round and free from pollutants. Good pond water quality is maintained and natural food should be adequate to enhance growth and survival. With high stocking densities, supplemental feed is also provided. The three types of nurseries are based on feed sources: lablab, plankton with supplemental feeding and direct feeding. Select hatchery-reared fry (21 day old) that swim actively in schools, are uniform in size, have robust body, and are resistant to handling and transport stress. The ideal fry stocking density is 5-40 pieces/m2. Survival ranging from 50-90% can be expected after 25-45 days of rearing. Harvest, packing, transport, acclimation and stocking of the fry or fingerlings are carefully done during the cooler part of the day. Economic indicators show that fingerlings production is a profitable business. The improvement of milkfish grow-out technology from extensive or traditional to modified-extensive, semi-intensive and intensive culture in ponds, pens or in sea cages has increased demand for good quality fingerlings. Mass production of hatchery-reared fingerlings in earthen nursery ponds during peak season of fry availability can help bridge the supply gap. A steady supply of fingerlings for a whole year s operation will further increase production and ensure a sustainable supply of affordable market-sized fish.