Browsing by Author "Bandonil, Lillian"
ArticleF Pascual & L Bandonil -
SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterRice bran is widely used by fish farmers as supplementary feed while soybean cake is used both as feed and as fertilizer in fishponds. Both fish meal and shrimp head have been found acceptable as feed ingredients. However, not much is known of the acceptability and efficiency of a mixture of these ingredients as feed for Penaeus monodon larvae. Ninety 127-day old P. monodon were measured for length and weight and were randomly divided into nine aquaria each containing 20 liters of water. These were fed lampirong for two months previous to the study. There were three replications for each treatment. Length, weight, and survival rates were used to compare the efficiency of the diets. Weighed amounts of pellets equivalent to 100% of the body weight were fed during the first three days and reduced to 50% thereafter. A stopwatch was used to determine the length of time that elapsed before the shrimps would approach the pellet. Ten shrimps approximately 4 months in age were placed in 10 liters of water in a 25-liter aquarium. Two grams of each pellet type were placed simultaneously on opposite sides of the aquarium. The time that elapsed from the moment the pellets sunk to the bottom up to the time that any one shrimp approached the pellets was recorded. The group fed the imported pellets gained the most. Those fed FP-2s-77 elongated faster than those fed FP-1s-77. Survival rate of those fed FP-2s-77 was 37% while those fed imported pellets was 73%. Both 1s and 2s pellets disintegrated in water easily but the imported pellets were stable even after six hours in water. The attractability test for the pellets showed that the prawns were more readily attracted to the pellets 1s and 2s than to the imported pellets.
ArticleJ Kalaw, L Bandonil & V Dy -
SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe culture of Penaeus monodon has explicitly defined the need for diet formulations or supplementary feeds that would promote optimum growth and survival of the animal. A total of 28 feed combinations were developed for P. monodon. Fish meal, shrimp head meal, squid head meal, Ascetes spp. rice bran, and soybean cake were used as primary ingredients in these feeds. The commercial vitamin mix No. 22 was added to the dry ingredients. Gelatinized corn starch and wheat flour were used as binders. The pellets were extruded using a portable kitchen grinder with a diameter of 4 mm. The products were either sun-dried for 8 hours or oven-dried overnight at 50 degree C to stabilize moisture at 8-10%. The pellets were then kept in covered glass bottles and stored in the laboratory at room temperature. The cost of the feeds excluding labour were also computed. The pellets were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, ash, and moisture contents using standard procedures. They were also analyzed for water stability. To test the stability of pellets in water, 2-g samples were placed in plankton nets (mesh #40) and suspended in water for two, and six hours. The undissolved samples were then vacuum-dried and the moisture determined. Cost of the feeds ranged from P1.10 to P2.60 per kg depending on the feed ingredient. Squid and Ascetes spp. were rather expensive for use as basic ingredients. Proximate analysis of dry weight showed percentage protein content ranged from 20-63 g; fat, 8-20 g; carbohydrate (by difference), 11-36 g; ash, 8-28 g; moisture, 6-11 g; and crude fiber, 5 . 13 g. Stability tests showed that after two hours, 35-88% of solids remained intact and after 6 hours, 20-55% of the pellets remained undissolved. When a pellet disintegrates easily, pollution of the water occurs. Chances for the shrimp to feed on the pellet is minimized when the pellet is unstable. Thus, the search for a more compact feed pellet has to be continued.