Now showing items 1-13 of 13

    • Article

      Amino acid requirements for growth of Nile tilapia 

      CB Santiago & RT Lovell - Journal of Nutrition, 1988 - American Society for Nutrition
      A series of feeding experiments was conducted in aquaria to determine the quantitative requirements of the 10 essential amino acids for growth of young Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The test diets contained casein and gelatin supplemented by crystalline L-amino acids to provide an amino acid profile similar to 28% whole egg protein except for the test amino acid. Each set of test diets consisted of seven isonitrogenous diets containing varying levels of the amino acid to be tested. Weight gains analyzed by the broken line regression method indicated the following requirements as a percentage of the dietary protein: lysine, 5.12; arginine, 4.20; histidine, 1.72; valine, 2.80; leucine, 3.39; isoleucine, 3.11; threonine, 3.75; tryptophan, 1.00; methionine with cystine (0.54% of the protein), 3.21; and phenylalanine with tyrosine (1.79% of the protein), 5.54.
    • Article

      Dietary crude protein requirement of Tilapia nilotica fry 

      CB Santiago, M Bañes-Aldaba & MA Laron - Kalikasan: The Journal of Philippine Biology, 1982 - University of the Philippines at Los Baños
      Tilapia fry were stocked at three per liter in wooden tank compartments or glass aquaria filled with 50 or 35 l of fresh water in three separate feeding trials. The fry were fed isocaloric practical diets containing 20, 25, 30, and 35% crude protein at 15% of fish biomass daily for seven weeks in the first tow trials. Another set of diets containing 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50% crude protein were fed to fry for eight weeks in trial 3.

      Although treatment means were not significantly different (P< 0.05), weight gains of the fry in trials 1 and 2 were related directly to increasing crude protein levels up to 35%. Weight gain in trial 3, however, was significantly high (P < 0.05) at 35% protein level. Moreover, maximum increases in total length and most efficient feed conversions were invariably attained at 35% protein. Higher protein levels gave much poorer growth. Survival rate at 35% protein was significantly high (P < 0.05) compared to 20% (trial 1) or 30% (trial 2) protein level. In trial 3, survival at 35% protein was not significantly different from all other treatments. Maximum growth, best feed conversion, and high survival were attained with the 35% protein diets.
    • Conference paper

      Effect of feeding regimes on growth and survival of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Richardson) fry 

      CB Santiago & OS Reyes - In SS De Silva (Ed.), Fish Nutrition Research in Asia. Proceedings of the Third Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting, 1989 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Two five-week feeding trials were undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis ) fry of 1.9-2.4 mg mean weight reared on various feeding regimes. In Treatment 1, the carp fry were fed with Brachionus alone. In Treatment 2, 3, 4 and 5, the fry were fed with Brachionus for 2, 4, 6 and 10 days, respectively, and then with an artificial diet for the remaining period. The carp fry were fed with the combination of Brachionus and artificial diet in Treatment 6 and with artificial diet alone in Treatment 7. Results showed that the combination of Brachionus and artificial diet was the best feeding regime in enhancing the growth of the bighead carp fry. Mean weights of the fry fed with Brachionus for 2, 4, 6 and 10 days prior to the shifting to artificial diet were similar to that of the fry fed with Brachionus alone or artificial diet alone. There was no distinct trend in survival as a function of feeding regime. However, Brachionus alone gave the highest survival rate in both trials.
    • Article

      Effect of nematode Panagrellus redivivus density on growth, survival, feed consumption and carcass composition of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) larvae 

      CB Santiago, M Ricci & A Reyes-Lampa - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      The study aimed to determine the optimum density of free-living nematodes in feeding bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, larvae. In the first experiment, carp stocked at 25 larvae L−1 were fed varying levels of nematodes (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 per ml) twice a day for 21 days from the start of exogenous feeding. Final body weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in larvae fed 125 and 150 nematodes per ml than in those fed 50 and 75 per ml, but survival was low (61.8 and 63.6%, respectively). Survival rate was highest in larvae fed 100 nematodes ml−1 (81.3%). Carcass analysis showed that larvae fed 125 and 150 nematodes ml−1 had significantly lower body protein and higher body lipid than those fed other nematode densities. Carcass ash was similar for larvae fed 50–100 nematodes ml−1 but it decreased significantly at the higher nematode densities. Carp larvae in a subsequent experiment were given 50, 75 and 100 nematodes ml−1 per feeding. Newly hatched Artemia was the control feed. Nematode consumption and growth of the larvae were determined. Larvae were sampled at intervals of 2–4 days and the nematodes in the gut were counted and measured. At each nematode density, the number of nematodes present in the gut of the larvae increased significantly with time. At each sampling day, the number of nematodes in the gut did not differ significantly among treatments (P > 0.05) although it tended to increase with nematode density at day 2 and day 4 but decrease at day 7 onward. The carp larvae consumed significantly shorter nematodes on day 2 and day 4 than on the succeeding sampling days regardless of nematode density. However, the length of nematodes in the gut of the larvae did not differ significantly among the nematode densities. The final body weight of larvae increased with increasing nematode density. The body weight of larvae fed 100 nematodes ml−1 did not differ significantly from that of larvae given Artemia nauplii. Results show that bighead carp larvae should be fed 100 free-living nematodes per ml at each feeding time.
    • Article

      The effects of artificial diets on fry production and growth of Oreochromis niloticus breeders 

      CB Santiago, MB Aldaba, EF Abuan & MA Laron - Aquaculture, 1985 - Elsevier
      Tilapia breeders were fed with pelleted supplemental diets containing 20 or 40% crude protein at a daily feeding rate of 1% of fish biomass for 24 weeks in cages and tanks. Breeders were weighed and fry were collected at 3-week intervals. The 40% protein diet consistently gave the highest fry production and growth of breeders. The 20% protein diet gave variable results; fry production and growth were comparable to those of breeders fed with the 40% protein diet in some trials but significantly low in others. Breeders without supplemental feeding invariably had the least number of fry and the lowest body weights.
    • Article

      Effects of dietary lipid source on reproductive performance and tissue lipid levels of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) broodstock 

      CB Santiago & OS Reyes - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1993 - Blackwell Publishing
      Nile tilapia were fed diets supplemented with one of the following lipid sources at 5% level: cod liver oil, corn oil, soybean oil, a coconut oil-based cooking oil or a combination of cod liver oil and corn oil (1 : 1). The control diet had no lipid supplement and tad fish meal as a sole protein source. A diet with soybean meal as a protein source was also tested. The number of females that spawned, spawning frequency, number of fry per spawning, and total fry production were increased at varying degrees by the supplemental lipid sources except for the cod liver oil. Fish fed the soybean oil diet tad the best overall reproductive performance over a 24-week period. Fish fed the cod liver oil diet had the highest weight gain but the poorest reproductive performance. The suplemental lipids significantly increased crude fat levels in the liver and ovaries. Both males and females Ld the cod liver oil diet had the highest levels of fat in the liver and muscle. The ratio of total n-6/n-3 fatty acid in the liver, ovaries and testes was influenced by the supplemental lipid sources. It was highest in fish fed either the soybean oil diet, the corn oil diet, or the soybean meal diet and lowest in fish fed the control diet or the cod liver oil diet.
    • Article

      Growth and survival of river catfish Mystus nemurus (Cuvier & Valenciennes) larvae fed isocaloric diets with different protein levels during weaning 

      RV Eguia, MS Kamarudin & CB Santiago - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2000 - Blackwell Publishing
      The growth of river catfish Mystus nemurus (Cuvier & Valenciennes) larvae fed four isocaloric diets (4200 kcal kg−1) with different protein levels during weaning was determined. Diets containing 45, 50, 55, and 60% protein were formulated by linear programming using amino acid profiles based on that of 2-day-old river catfish larvae. Artificial diets were fed to the larvae beginning at day 5 after being initially fed Artemia nauplii for 4 days. The larvae thrived solely on artificial diets from day 8 to day 16. On the other hand, the control larvae were fed Artemia nauplii from day 1 to day 16. Results of the feeding trial showed that growth and survival of M. nemurus larvae given the diet containing 60% protein were high and comparable to those of the larvae given only live food (control). Larvae fed the 55% protein diet had significantly lower growth and survival than the larvae on the control and 60% diets but significantly higher growth and survival rates than did larvae fed with 45 and 50% protein diets. Carcass moisture and total lipids after 16 days of feeding did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), but body protein increased with increasing dietary protein. Body protein of the control larvae was similar to that of larvae given the 60% protein diet.
    • Article

      Growth, survival and feed conversion of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed diets containing Bayo-n-ox, a commercial growth promoter 

      CB Santiago - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a commercial growth promoter, Bayo-n-ox, on Nile tilapia fingerlings (mean initial weight 3.6 g). After 6 weeks, the weight gain of fish given 25 mg Bayo-n-ox/kg body weight was somewhat higher than that of the control fish. A slight growth depression was manifested by fish given 50 mg Bayo-n-ox/kg body weight. Total length followed a trend similar to that of weight gain. However, growth, the feed conversion ratio and the survival rate were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among treatments.
    • Book

      Induced breeding and seed production of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) 

      AC Gonzal, CB Santiago, AC Fermin & EV Aralar - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 33
      A 40-page manual that details the advanced induced spawning technology for Bighead carp developed at SEAFDEC/AQD through the years. This handbook emphasizes the adoption of efficient carp hatchery techniques for optimal production of good quality eggs and juveniles.
    • Book chapter

      Nutrition and feeds 

      CB Santiago - In CS Lee, MS Gordon & WO Watanabe (Eds.), Aquaculture of milkfish (Chanos chanos): state of the art, 1986 - Oceanic Institute
      Milkfish culture is gradually shifting from the traditional extensive aquaculture system, where in the fish depends mainly on natural food for growth, to semi=intensive or intensive culture systems in which additional inputs such as formulated diets are used to increase fish production (Chen, 1981). This paper reviews present information on digestive organs and enzymes, food and feeding habits of the age groups, digestibility of feedstuffs, and nutrient requirements for milkfish.
    • Conference paper

      Nutrition and feeds of Nile tilapia broodstock and fry 

      CB Santiago - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition, 25-26 February 1985, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development
      Studies on some aspects of tilapia and feed formulation conducted at BRS are reviewed in this paper.

      The effect fo varying dietary crude protien on growth and spawning frequency of tilapia was determined under laboratory conditions. The weight of male fish increased as dietary crude protein increased; however, weight gain of male fish did not follow a definite due to the asynchronous nature of spawning of the tilipia. Results suggested that when diets contain high-quality protein, and feedig is at station level, the influence of increasing dietary protein on spawning frequency and growth of the females are not cxonsiderable.

      In another study, tilapia broodstock in cages and tanks had the best growth and highest fry production when fed a 40% CP diet.

      Ipil-ipil leaf mal as a sole or major source of dietary protein caused weight loss among tilapia breeders, drastic reduction in fry production, and eventually cessation of reproduction. The growth of breeders describers decreased significantly with the incorpotion of more than 40% ipil-ipil in the diet.

      For Nile tilapia fry, growth was enhanced by availability of high phytoplankton densities in the rearing medium through the culture period. Feeding the fry with unialgal culture of Navicula and Chroococcus resulted in highest gains and survival rates. Chlorella gave poor survival and growth. Rice bran or Moina as feed for the fry was nutritionally inadequate. Their nutritional value improved when both were combined as feed.
    • Article

      Optimum dietary protein level for growth of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry in a static water system 

      CB Santiago & OS Reyes - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Isocalric diets (290 kcal digestible energy/100 g) with protein levels ranging from 20 to 50% in increments of 5% were fed to bighead carp fry (3.8±0.2 mg mean body weight and 9.8±0.1 mm total length) for 7 weeks. Growth in weight and length increased as the protein level of the diet increased from 20 to 30% and decreased as the protein level increased further. Although not significantly different (P>0.05) from those of fry fed the 25% or 35% protein diet, weight gain (250 mg) and increase in total length (15.7 mm) were highest for fry fed the 30% protein diet. Feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and survival rate did not clearly indicate the required protein level. The protein requirement was determined using a static-water culture system but assessment of the water quality failed to indicate an association between ammonia concentration and protein in the diet. Further research is necessary to determine why high levels of protein resulted in depressed growth.
    • Conference paper

      A suctorean parasite of Penaeus monodon larvae 

      RQ Gacutan, AT Llobrera, CB Santiago, PJ Gutierrez & G Lio-Po - In Proceedings of the Second Biennial Crustacean Health Workshop, 1977 April 20-22, Galveston, Texas, 1979 - Sea Grant College Program, Texas A&M University
      A pathogenic suctorean, identified as Ephelota gemmipara was observed in P. monodon larvae spawned and reared in tanks. Commonly found to inhabit hydroid colonies, E. gemmipara has a stalked body with two types of tentacles, the sucking and piercing types, and was observed to reproduce by multiple exogenous budding.