Browsing by Author "Salayo, Nerissa D."
Conference paperJP Altamirano, N Salayo, H Kurokura, H Fushimi & S Ishikawa - In K Hajime, T Iwata, Y Theparoonrat, N Manajit & VT Sulit (Eds.), Consolidating the Strategies for Fishery Resources Enhancement in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium … Strategy for Fisheries Resources Enhancement in the Southeast Asian Region, Pattaya, Thailand, 27-30 July 2015, 2016 - Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterIn central Philippines, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD), with strong collaboration and support from the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) of Kyoto, Japan, has been looking into the stock enhancement of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in the New Washington Estuary (NWE), province of Aklan, central Philippines. The NWE was a productive fishing ground that has been suffering from degenerating brackishwater fisheries and estuarine environment. Average daily catch declined from 24 kg in 1970s to only 0.7 kg at present. Shrimp fisheries, the most important livelihood, declined in quality and quantity. Tiger shrimps were abundant in catch until the early 1990s when these were observed to decline in volume, replaced by smaller and cheaper species. This was coincidental with the rapid decline in mangrove cover for ponds and huge increase in fishing pressure. It is clear that crucial interventions are required to restore the tiger shrimp fisheries in the NWE in order to increase income of local fishers, while promoting reduction of fishing gears and restoration of mangroves. Stock enhancement of tiger shrimps shows good potential in answering these needs. Site-specific assessments were conducted to evaluate prospects of shrimp stock enhancement in NWE. Conservative simulations of capture of released stocks showed that fishers can increase income by 300%. To decrease fishing pressure in the area, number of gears per fisher may have to be reduced but shrimp catches will be relatively high-priced. Comparative experiments using aquaculture techniques were done to identify strategies especially in the delicate intermediate acclimation rearing. Aquaculture protocols like those for pond preparation were also adapted to be used in a mangrove pen nursery rearing system for shrimps. Supplemental feeding with formulated feeds increased carrying capacity of the culture area, while enhancing growth and survival of stocks. Culture experiments showed that shrimps grow to 0.5 g within 1 mo and >1g in 2 mo. High stocking density of 40-60 shrimps m-2 can be used for <2 mo rearing in a mangrove pen. Release experiments showed that 60-d old shrimps have higher chances of survival when released in the estuaries. With strong support from local communities, government and other sectors, together with effective management and law enforcement, aquaculture-based stock enhancement of tiger shrimps can be a viable intervention to restore livelihood and promote estuarine rehabilitation in the NWE.
Book chapterND Salayo - In IML Siason (Ed.), Coastal resource management: Perspectives from the social sciences, 2013 - Department of Agriculture - Bureau of Agricultural ResearchThis chapter suggests that the market, as an economic and social institution, has important roles and a multitude of opportunities to contribute to the strategies for managing the crisis, in fisheries. The crisis apparently was an outcome of the complex interplay of variables such as increasing fishing pressure, depleting fish stocks, low income among small-scale fishers, social inequity in the fishery sector and inadequate management of the fishery and related resources.
Towards sustainable development of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines: Experience and lessons learned from eight regional sites The focus of this paper is on the governance of small-scale or municipal fisheries in the Philippines in light of the critical role they play in the livelihoods of coastal communities and in the nation as a whole. Annually, some 1.3 million metric tons of fish are harvested from the country’s 17,460 km coastline and 496,000 ha of inland water bodies. This sub-sector contributes significantly to the Philippine economy, supplies the bulk of the dietary fish requirement for over 90 million Filipinos who consume around 38 kg/capita/year, and provides direct employment to 1.4 million fishers. Despite eight national fisheries plans from 1972 to 2010, four major externally funded fisheries programs and thousands of local initiatives, the failures and inadequacies in governance of small-scale fisheries are conspicuous. They are made evident by depleted fishery resources, degraded fish habitats, intensified resource use competition and conflict, post-harvest losses, limited institutional capabilities, inadequate and inconsistent fisheries policies, and weak institutional partnerships. Although there are suitable governance arrangements in place, there needs to be better clarification of management functions between and among the various bodies at different administrative levels. Up-scaling small-scale fisheries management and expanding institutional partnerships would be beneficial. Six ‘core’ strategies are proposed to help promote the sustainability of small-scale fisheries: (1) sustain—conservation and rational use of fishery resources; (2) protect—preventive steps to manage threats to habitats and/or ecosystems that support fisheries; (3) develop—development of small-scale fisheries in geographically-appropriate areas, including promotion of livelihoods; (4) capacitate—enhancing the capacity of municipal fishers and relevant stakeholders; (5) institutionalize—organizational integration including scaling-up of fisheries management; and (6) communicate—generation of pertinent information and translation into appropriate formats for practical transmission. In pursuit of multiple objectives, the governance of small-scale fisheries will continue to be a delicate balancing act. However, it will be the more judicious allocation of administrative resources by local government units to small-scale fisheries, as well as the continuing support of national government agencies and civil society groups, that will be most critical over the longer term.