Now showing items 1-8 of 8

    • Oral presentation

      The economics of different prawn and shrimp pond culture systems: A comparative analysis 

      D Israel, F Apud & N Franco - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper aims to present a comparative economic evaluation of different pond culture systems for prawn (Penaeus monodon) and shrimp (P. indicus and P. merguiensis) using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The different culture systems include extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of prawns and shrimps and the extensive polyculture of these species with milkfish (Chanos chanos). Data used in the analysis were taken from both SEAFDEC AQD and industry experience. The technical data were gathered from researchers and private sector experiences in prawn and shrimp farming. Financial estimates were determined after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration.

      The study shows that the extensive monoculture of prawns and the extensive polyculture of prawn with shrimp and milkfish are profitable culture systems. Return on investment (ROI) and payback period for prawn extensive monoculture systems range from 10 to 65% and from 1.4 to 8.6 years, respectively. For polyculture systems, ROI ranges from 8 to 85% and payback period from 1.1 to 10.5 years. The semi-intensive culture of prawn shows moderate results. This is largely due to higher capital requirements for semi-intensive culture as compared to extensive culture. The extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of shrimps on the other hand show poor results, with semi-intensive monoculture registering net losses after all costs are considered.
    • Article

      Effect of different stocking densities on survival and growth of sugpo (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) in a milkfish-rearing pond 

      JH Primavera, FD Apud & C Usigan - Philippine Journal of Science, 1976 - STII-DOST
      Employing a direct stocking monoculture method, postlarval P. monodon were stocked in 8 compartments of a shallow milkfish rearing pond at densities of 1, 2, 3 and 4/sq m with replicates. Feeding was exclusively natural (microbenthic lablab and plankton); Chanos fingerlings were later introduced to control excessive growth of lablab. Measurements of temperature, DO, pH, salinity and alkalinity were taken daily; stock sampling of length and weight was done every 30 days. Halfway through the culture period, the nylon net separating the compartments was accidentally lifted thereby invalidating data for 5 of the compartments. The prawns were harvested after 5.5 months. Survival was approximately the same for all stocking rates (51.76% at 4/sq m; 50.20% at 2/sq m; 42.54% at 1/sq m and 49.75% for the five remaining compartments treated as one). Growth rates are less conclusive due to the paucity of data. Effects of such physiochemical conditions as high and shallow depth are discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Extensive and semi-intensive culture of prawn and shrimp in the Philippines 

      FD Apud - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Various farming systems for prawn and shrimp are compared, with emphasis on the extensive and semi-intensive culture of tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and white shrimp Penaeus indicus in monoculture or in polyculture with milkfish (Chanos chanos). The bases of comparison include pond design characteristics, stocking density, food supply, water management, average production, technical, and other major input requirements. Common factors that may influence production for each system are also discussed.

      It is observed that prawn and shrimp production has been mainly characterized by the extensive system. Of the 200,000 ha of brackishwater fishponds in the Philippines, about 25% (50,000 ha) are stocked with prawns and shrimps in monoculture or in polyculture with milkfish. Only a relatively small portion (less than 500 ha) of the area is utilized for semi-intensive culture. The dramatic increase in area utilization for extensive prawn production in recent years can be attributed to high market demand, increased hatchery-bred fry production, minimum technical requirements, and lower production cost and risks.

      The trend towards intensification among existing large fishfarms is hampered by rising capital costs for fishpond improvement and increasing operational expense and risks. However, intensification is gaining some attention and progress in limited areas, primarily to maximize utilization and production to avoid high investment cost of land for expansion. Further development and progress in the industry will be dependent on such factors as market price, availability of fry and feed at reasonable cost, supply of trained technicians, technical problems, financial situation, and economic viability of the operation.
    • Book

      Farming of prawns and shrimps 

      FD Apud, PL Torres Jr. & JH Primavera - 1983 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 5
      The manual provides information on the culture of shrimps and prawns. Considerations regarding farm sites, pond specifications, pond ecosystems and differences between prawn and milkfish culture are examined. Seed supply, farm management practices and economic aspects are detailed.
    • Conference paper

      Handling and rearing of hatchery-produced shrimp postlarvae from small-scale hatchery 

      FD Apud - In Working Party on Small-Scale Shrimp/Prawn Hatcheries in Southeast Asia, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 16-21 November 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      This paper discusses the handling and rearing of hatchery-produced Penaeus post larvae. The survival and growth of hatchery produced fry and wild caught fry are discussed.
    • Book

      Manual of operations : sugpo pond culture 

      JH Primavera & FD Apud - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 2
      This manual is intended for fish farmers, extension workers and others in their initial efforts to produce marketable sugpo (Penaeus monodon) for local consumption or export. Information is presented on pond preparation, stocking, transfer from nursery to rearing pond, rearing, harvesting, processing and transport. Appendices deal with the control of pests and predators, diseases, fertilization, and the estimation of rate of supplementary feeding.
    • Article

      Pond culture of sugpo, P. monodon (Fabricius) 

      JH Primavera & FD Apud - The Philippine Journal of Fisheries, 1976 - BFAR
      A resume is presented of the practical considerations involved in establishing a sugpo pond culture operation, as a guide to fish farmers, extension workers and others interested in producing marketable sugpo in the Philippines. In addition to outlining the general biology of P.monodon , information is given for pond preparation, stocking, transfer from nursery pond to rearing pond, rearing, harvesting, processing and transport. A large appendix deals with the control of pests, predators and diseases, fertilisation and supplementary feeding, and incorporates an illustrated manual of operations.
    • Book

      Recent developments in prawn pond culture 

      FD Apud - 1989 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension pamphlet; No. 1
      This document presents the recommended methodology, nominal projections and partial costs and returns, for extensive prawn culture at two production objectives, and semi-intensive culture with costs and returns breakdown for three production targets. Intensive prawn culture procedures are not discussed.

      Extensive Prawn Culture System I projects a production yield of about 110 to 160 kg/ha/crop or more in four months and survival rate of from 65 to 70%. The extensive Prawn Culture System II aims for a production rate of about 230 kg/ha/crop in four months at about 70% survival with expected average body weight of about 25 grams. The procedures indicated have been verified and are now widely practiced.

      Production targets under the Semi-intensive Prawn Culture System I range from 350 to 500 kg/ha in four months at survival rate of about 70 to 75% and expected average size at harvest of about 28 to 30 pcs/kg. This method has been confirmed at different collaborative sites using the modified SEAFDEC diet developed by the Feed Development staff of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.