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    • Article

      On the induced spawning and larval rearing of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal) 

      IC Liao, JV Juario, S Kumagai, H Nakajima, M Natividad & P Buri - Aquaculture, 1979 - Elsevier
      A female milkfish, captured at sea, was injected with two hormonal injections of acetone-dried salmon pituitary powder and human chorionic gonadotropin, plus Vitamin B complex. It was stripped, and produced 128,000 ripe eggs with an average diameter of 1.15 mm. Fertilization rate was 38% following artificial fertilization with milt from an uninjected male. A total of 36,000 larvae hatched (74% of fertile eggs) after 26–32 h at 34 ‰ salinity and 27–32°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 3.4 mm in mean total length and possessed a large yolk sac. The mouth of the larvae opened about 54 h after hatching. The larvae were fed with fertilized oyster eggs, rotifers, copepods, brine shrimp, flour and prepared feed, together with Chlorella. A critical period was between the 4th and 6th days with mortality over 80%. The larvae started increasing in length by Day 8, and had the appearance of the wild fry by Day 11. On Day 13 a pigmentation pattern developed and the biggest larva measured 10.0 mm. By Day 18 the larvae measured 12.5 mm, and 14.5 mm by Day 21. A total of 2,859 fry was obtained; the highest larval survival rate obtained from different experimental groups was 46.8%.