Now showing items 1-2 of 2

    • Conference paper

      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of penaeid shrimps: Global perspective 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 reported that fisheries production worldwide is projected to expand by 19% between the 2012-14 base period and 2024, to reach 191 million metric tons (MT) and the main driver of this increase will be aquaculture, which is expected to reach 96 million MT by 2024, 38% higher than the base period (average 2012-14) level. Among the 7 key uncertainties that affect gains in productivity, the potential of animal disease outbreaks to affect aquaculture production and subsequently domestic and international markets are once again highlighted, although for the first time in this outlook. Another milestone document, the Blue frontiers: managing the environmental costs of aquaculture identified a number of fish health issues, including increased risk of the spread of pathogens and diseases with intensification, through increased movement of aquatic animals, inter-regional trade and introduction of new species and new strains, and through the use of trash fish or live feed; concerns on residues and development of drug resistant pathogens brought about by the abuse on the use antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs; limited availability of vaccines; environmental stressors that compromise the immune system; difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing international standards; and the need for legislation, enforcement and capacity building. The issues identified then and now are almost the same.

      Addressing animal health issues in aquaculture is very challenging because the sector is highly complex (with a wide range of diversity in terms of species, systems, practices and environment, each presenting different risks), its fluid environment, and the transboundary nature where fish is considered as one of the most traded commodity, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health: they are not visible except in tank holding conditions; they live in a complex and dynamic environment and feed consumption and mortalities are hidden under water.

      This paper looks at the status of a newly emerging disease of cultured shrimp, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has been recognized as the most important non-viral disease threat to cultured shrimp. In particular, this paper presents the highlights of the International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND: Government, Scientist and Farmer Responses held from 22-24 June 2015 in Panama City, Panama, which was organized under the auspices of an FAO inter-regional project TCP/INT/3502: Reducing and Managing the Risks of AHPND of Cultured Shrimp, being participated by 11 countries, namely: Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and India, Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region. The Panama EMS/AHPND June 2015 event aimed to provide a platform to improve the understanding of the disease through the lens of governments, scientists and producers and collectively generate practical management and control measures. More than 100 stakeholders from 21 countries representing the government, academe and producer sectors participated in the event. The highlights contain the latest available information at that time (June 2015) about AHPND including the current state of knowledge about the causative agent, the host and geographical distribution, detection methods, risk factors, management and actions of regional and international organizations.
    • Conference paper

      Sustaining aquaculture by developing human capacity and enhancing opportunities for women 

      MJ Williams, R Agbayani, R Bhujel, MG Bondad-Reantaso, C Brugère, PS Choo, J Dhont, A Galmiche-Tejeda, K Ghulam, K Kusakabe, D Little, MC Nandeesha, P Sorgeloos, N Weeratunge, S Williams & P Xu - In RP Subasinghe, JR Arthur, DM Bartley, SS De Silva, M Halwart, N Hishamunda, CV Mohan & P Sorgeloos (Eds.), Farming the Waters for People and Food. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Phuket, Thailand, 22-25 September 2010, 2012 - FAO; NACA
      People are at the heart of sustaining aquaculture. Development of human capacity and gender, therefore, is an important human dimension. Human capacity development (HCD) was a major thrust of the 2000 Bangkok Declaration and Strategy, but gender was not addressed. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation's (FAO) Strategic Framework for Human Capacity Development (HCD) emphasized building human capacity in a coherent fashion at four levels - in individuals, organizations, sectors/networks and in the overall enabling environment. Although strategic HCD in aquaculture has not received attention, substantial HCD has occurred in aquaculture education and training. Aquaculture departments in universities, aquaculture research institutes, networks and professional societies all include training as central activities.

      Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women's work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid. Most aquaculture development projects are not gender sensitive, and aquaculture success stories often do not report gender dimensions; projects can fail if their designs do not include gender.

      Lacking gender-disaggregated data on participation rates and trends in education, we conducted a preliminary survey of aquaculture tertiary institutes in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. The percentage of female graduates in aquaculture increased considerably over the last four decades, from zero or low numbers in the 1970s to recent rates of around 30-60 percent; rates vary both by country and within countries. No data are available to track whether female graduates are entering successful careers in aquaculture. To accelerate HCD to meet the needs of aquaculture growth, commodity and theme priorities for HCD must be established. Educational institutions should cooperate and harmonize work programmes and overcome language barriers. Aquaculture education needs the best students and should help prepare them for rewarding careers. More social science content is needed in aquaculture curricula to groom graduates for management and leadership roles. The gender balance in aquaculture faculty could be improved by recruiting and retaining more women.

      Gender should be put firmly on the policy agenda and built into normative instruments, old and new, complemented by the collection of gender-disaggregated data for aquaculture supply chains. Women should be empowered through gender equity in access to financial, natural, training and market resources. Women in aquaculture should not be stereotyped as 'small-scale' and poor. Women are often hampered by systemic barriers such as lack of legal rights. Women should be encouraged to build their management, leadership and entrepreneural skills. In circumstances where rural men have migrated for work, small-scale aquaculture has proven a suitable livelihood option to reduce the pressure on women. Because postharvest processing and fish trade are feminized occupations, gender equity deserves special attention in fair trade and fish certification schemes. HCD and gender are receiving more attention in rehabilitation efforts to assist survivors from disease and natural disasters.