Now showing items 1-14 of 14

    • Book chapter

      Amino and fatty acid profiles of wild-sourced grouper (Epinephelus coioides) broodstock and larvae 

      VR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was undertaken to provide information on the levels of amino acids in the muscle, liver and gonad of wild-sourced broodstock and larvae, as well as in neurula eggs and day 35 larvae from a hatchery. The fatty acid composition of grouper broodstock tissues was also determined. Samples were analysed for crude protein, amino acids, total lipids and fatty acid contents. Muscle contained higher levels of crude protein and amino acids than the ovary and liver. At the early maturing stage, the grouper ovarian protein was 73.3% and lipid was 19.3%, indicating the high dietary requirements of these nutrients for ovarian development. The crude protein and amino acid contents in wild-sourced larvae were higher than that in eggs and larvae from the hatchery.
    • Article

      Biomass yield of Isochrysis galbana (Parke; clone T-ISO) and growth of Brachionus rotundiformis (Tschugunoff) using continuous cultivation method 

      MR de la Peña - Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2014 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      Batch culture of Isochrysis galbana clone T-ISO is difficult due to its unstable biomass production; hence, the effect of continuous cultivation at different dilution rates was investigated to compare its productivity with that of batch culture. Significantly higher total algal cell yield was attained in continuous cultures (1.70 × 108 and 1.03 × 108 cells L-1 at 0.60 d-1 and 0.30 d-1 dilution rates, respectively) compared with batch culture (0.16 × 108 cells L-1); the batch culture did not receive any inflow of nutrients. The amount of protein per cell was similar in both batch and continuous cultures at 0.60 d-1 dilution rate after 24 h and 5 d in both culture systems. Chlorophyll a yield was not affected by dilution rate but decreased as the culture aged. The dry weight yield was also similar in both batch and continuous cultures. The higher nitrate concentration supplemented in the batch culture resulted in higher cell density and elevated protein content of the alga. Rotifer (Brahionus rotundiformis) cultures that received inflow of nutrients from the algal tanks had significantly higher (P<0.05) peak population count (28 and 33 individuals mL-1 at 0.30 and 0.60 d-1 dilution rates, respectively) compared with rotifer cultures that did not receive an inflow of food (18.22 individuals mL-1). The higher biomass yield of T-ISO using continuous cultivation method can increase the population growth of rotifer under tropical conditions.
    • Article

      Cell growth, effect of filtrate and nutritive value of the tropical Prasinophyte Tetraselmis tetrathele (Butcher) at different phases of culture 

      MR de la Peña & CT Villegas - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing
      A local algal isolate Tetraselmis tetrathele was studied to determine the suitable levels of three growth factors (nutrient medium, light intensity and photoperiod) for mass culture. Significantly higher population cell count (141.92 × 104) were found in 4-day-old cultures (exponential phase) enriched with Conwy medium and exposed continuously to 93.31–103.5 μmole photon m−2 s−1 light intensity compared with two other media (F, SEAFDEC/AQD) under the same light conditions. Cultures exposed to higher levels of photosynthetic photon flux density and continuous photoperiod had a significantly higher cell count regardless of nutrient media used. The chemical composition of T. tetrathele varied as the culture aged. Significantly higher crude protein (49.6%) and crude ash (15.9%) were found in cultures harvested at exponential than at stationary phase of growth. In contrast, significantly higher carbohydrate (55.2%) was noted as the culture aged. There was an increase in the percentage of saturated, monoenoic and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids at the stationary phase of growth. Addition of filtrate from various phases of growth and from 10-day-old cultures at various concentrations stimulated cell growth of T. tetrathele. This study identified the optimum growth conditions for mass culture of T. tetrathele and demonstrated its change in the chemical composition as the culture aged.
    • Book

      Culture of marine phytoplankton for aquaculture seed production 

      MR de la Peña & AV Franco - 2013 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 55
      The 32-page extension manual describes the biology, culture techniques and maintenance and mass propagation of 12 phytoplankton species used as live feed in marine hatcheries.
    • Book

      Culture of rotifer (Brachionus rotundiformis) and brackishwater cladoceran (Diphanosoma celebensis) for aquaculture seed production 

      MR de la Peña - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 60
      A 32-page manual with topics on the biology and cultivation techniques of zooplankton.
    • Article

      Evaluation of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food in abalone hatchery: Effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, MR de la Peña & AJ Asutilla - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries Association
      The performance of an agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) was evaluated on feeding postlarval abalone Haliotis asinina, focusing on the effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies. Larval abalone, obtained from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department hatchery, were reared in 60-L flow-through tanks with UV-filtered seawater. They were fed 1,200 mg A-MPD bound with either 5.0 mg/mL agar solution, 7.5 mg/mL agar solution, 10.0 mg/mL agar solution, and 12.5 mg/mL agar solution, or a natural diet consisting of diatoms at different feeding frequencies (daily, every other day, or every 2 d) starting at day 5. A 5 × 3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design tested the effects of various treatments on postlarval settlement and survival after days 15 and 90. Scheffé's postcomparison test determined differences among treatments means. Postlarval settlement and survival were not significantly different in diets bound with higher agar concentrations and tested in 3 feeding frequencies. At lower levels of agar incorporation in diets, however, settlement and survival counts became significantly higher on daily feeding. Postlarval settlement and survival were significantly highest with abalone fed a diet bound with 7.5 mg/mL agar solution on a daily feeding frequency. Average percent weight loss in the feed was higher with lower levels of agar incorporation. Average particle size of both A-MPD and diatoms was 4–5 µm. Crude protein content of A-MPD was 42.7%; that of diatoms was 14.9%. A-MPD may be used as alternative food in abalone hatcheries with the incorporation of 7.5 mg/mL agar solution fed daily to abalone.
    • Article

      Evaluation of density and cage design for the nursery and grow-out of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne 1758 

      VC Encena II, M de la Peña & VT Balinas - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries Association
      The effect of stocking density and cage design on the growth, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio was evaluated for the nursery (11–15 mm in shell length) and juvenile grow-out (26–30 mm in shell length) of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Abalone were fed Gracilaria sp. within a randomized 2 × 3 factorial experiment using 2 stocking densities (Tl (500 pieces/m2) and T2 (1,000 pieces/m2)) and 3 cages (D1, box; D2, mesh cage; D3, prefabricated multitier trays). In addition, 3 stocking densities (T1, 50 pieces/m ; T2, 100 pieces/m; T3, 200 pieces/m) were evaluated in the prefabricated multitier trays. We found that, in the nursery experiment, 4-mo-old tropical abalone juveniles reared for 90 d showed no significant differences in growth (shell length and body weight) and survival rates among the 3 nursery cages used (Tukey's post hoc test, P > 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, however, was lowest for the high-density treatment T1D3 (7.8 ± 0.76) and was significantly different from the low density treatment T1D1 (11.32 ± 1.2) and intermediate density treatment T1D2 (12.39 ± 1.12; t-test, P > 0.05). Conversely, at higher densities (T2), the same trend applied with abalone reared in multitier basket systems (T2D3), having the highest growth rates and survival rates (29.3 ± 0.07 mm average shell length (ASL) and 5.16 ± 0.52 g average body weight (ABW)), followed closely by those reared in mesh cages (T2D2) and boxes (T2D1). Feed conversion ratio was also lowest for T2D3 (7.56 ± 0.79) and was significantly lower than T2D1 and T2D2. Between treatments, however, abalone reared at lower densities (T1) had significantly higher growth and survival than those reared at higher densities (T2), regardless of the nursery cage used, indicating an inverse relationship between stocking density, growth, and survival. For the grow-out study, tropical abalone reared in multitier trays at low densities (T1) attained the highest growth in shell length and body weight (49.7 ± 0.11 mm ASL and 29.8 ± 2.6 g ABW, respectively) at 180 d of culture, which was significantly greater than those reared in the high-density treatment (T3) with significantly smaller shell length and body weight (43.8 ± 0.18 mm ASL and 21.2 ± 2.0 g ABW), but not significantly different than the intermediate density treatment. This trend started from day 60 of culture onward when analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test (P > 0.05). Survival rates were not significantly different among stocking density treatments, nor were feed conversion ratios. We recommend, for nursery rearing of abalone juveniles, using multitier trays (D3) or boxes (D1) at 500 pieces/m2 stocking density to attain a grow-out size of 26–30 mm in shell length in 90 days. A stocking density of 100 pieces/m2 is recommended to grow abalone in multitier trays to attain a cocktail size of 50 mm ASL and 30 g ABW in 180 d with survival rates between 85.6% and 83.1%.
    • Article

      Evaluation of dietary freeze-dried Chaetoceros calcitrans supplementation to control Vibrio harveyi infection on Penaeus monodon juvenile 

      EB Seraspe, S Gabotero, MR de la Peña, IG Pahila & EC Amar - Aquaculture, 2014 - Elsevier
      Effects of supplementation of diets with freeze-dried Chaetoceros calcitrans to control Vibrio harveyi infection are evaluated through immune responses, and disease resistance of juvenile Penaeus monodon. Total lipid and fatty acid profile of Chaetoceros calcitrans is also analyzed. A challenge infection with 107 cfu/mL concentration of Vibrio harveyi is intramuscularly injected to juvenile Penaeus monodon after 45 days of feeding of diets supplemented with 15 g/kg and 30 g/kg dried Chaetoceros calcitrans. The use of dried Chaetoceros calcitrans is compared with that of ß-1,3 glucan Curdlan, a commercial immune enhancer. Incorporation of 30 g/kg Chaetoceros calcitrans in the diet enhances the immune system of shrimp as effected by high prophenoloxidase activity and plasma protein concentration and is better compared to the commercially available Curdlan. Chaetoceros calcitrans also contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linolenic acid and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) which are responsible for its antibacterial action against Vibrio harveyi. All these biological activities of Chaetoceros calcitrans add up to increase resistance of the juvenile Penaeus monodon to vibriosis as shown by its high survival rate from the challenge infection with Vibrio harveyi. Therefore, it is worthwhile to use Chaetoceros calcitrans as supplementary feed. Its effect in increasing the immune competence coupled with its antibacterial action, make the shrimp resistant to luminous vibriosis that continues to affect the industry, thereby augmenting aquaculture production.
    • Book chapter

      Lipid nutrition studies on grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae 

      VR Alava, FMP Priolo, JD Toledo, JC Rodriguez Jr., GF Quinitio, AC Sa-an, MR de la Peña & RD Caturao - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      The main objectives of this project were to study the lipid chain transfer from the egg stage through hatching and the patterns of lipid conservation or loss during starvation and feeding of larvae in order to elucidate the lipid metabolism of grouper (Phase 1); to determine the fatty acid composition of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) boosters and enriched live food organisms to enable the possibility of choosing food organisms that provide various dietary levels and ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA, Phase 2); and to determine the effect of Brachionus and Artemia, containing different levels and ratios of DHA:EPA:ARA, on the growth and survival of grouper larvae (Phase 3). Total lipids (TL) of samples were extracted and separated into neutral (NL) and polar lipids (PL). The samples collected in Phase 1 were floating neurula eggs, newly hatched (NHL) and unfed 4-day larvae; larvae fed with live food organisms for 25 and 35 days or starved for 3 days; and wild-sourced larvae starved for a week. In Phase 2, the samples collected were phytoplanktons, Brachionus cultured in phytoplankton for 4 days, Diaphanosoma celebensis and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei. In phase 3, larvae were fed Brachionus until day 14 and at day 25 with Artemia. E. coioides eggs contained high DHA, EPA and ARA, demonstrating their importance in larval development. Larvae primarily spent NL as energy, whereas PL was generally conserved. Wild grouper larvae had higher levels of PL than NL, whereas hatchery-sourced eggs and larvae contained higher levels of NL than PL. Based on the lipid content of wild larvae, high phospholipid diets were essential for larvae survival and normal development. A variety of products were effective in enriching the HUFA content (particularly ratios of DHA, EPA and ARA) of live food organisms. HUFA-enriched live food organisms enhanced the growth, survival and pigmentation in grouper larvae.
    • Article

      Microalgal paste production of the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans using electrolytic flocculation method at optimum culture conditions 

      MR de la Peña, AV Franco, HP Igcasan Jr., MDGN Arnaldo, RM Piloton, SS Garibay & VT Balinas - Aquaculture International, 2018 - Springer Verlag
      The optimum culture conditions of the local strain Chaetoceros calcitrans were determined to improve biomass and reduce cost of production. Under outdoor culture conditions, higher cell density was attained when the cultures were enriched with Tungkang Marine Research Laboratory (TMRL) medium composed of cheap technical grade reagents and cultured at 25 g L−1 salinity. The cultures were lighted with two 40 W cool-white GE fluorescent tubes (24–35 μmol photon m−2 s−1). Using semi-continuous culture system under established optimum culture conditions, C. calcitrans can be re-cultured thrice and concentrated at each culture cycle using electrolytic flocculation method to produce 4.6 kg m−3 of diatom paste. The viability of concentrated C. calcitrans after 3 months of storage was comparable to live diatom cells. Simple preservation technique by low-temperature storage is convenient for storing algal concentrates for use as starter cultures and for feeding invertebrates. The paste costs USD 8.24 kg−1 inclusive of the assets and flocculation materials for culturing and harvesting the diatom, respectively. This study established the suitable conditions for mass culture of C. calcitrans and produced concentrated diatoms in paste form that is readily available for aquaculture hatcheries at a lower cost.
    • Article

      Partial replacement of Artemia sp. by the brackishwater cladoceran, Diaphanosoma celebensis (Stingelin), in the larval rearing of sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) 

      MR de la Peña, AC Fermin & DP Lojera - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      A feed experiment was conducted to test the brackishwater cladoceran, Diaphanosoma celebensis, as a partial or complete substitute for Artemia in the larval rearing of the sea bass, Lates calcarifer. The cladoceran was fed either alone or in combination with Artemia to 15-day old sea bass larvae (5.6 mm SL, 2.7 mg wet BW) reared at 15 ppt salinity. Groups fed Artemia alone were reared at 15 and 32 ppt salinity levels. After 15 days of rearing, the survival (95-99%), observed mortality (0.8-1.2%) and apparent loss due to cannibalism (0.2-4.1%) did not differ significantly among treatments. The specific growth rates of fish fed only Artemia (18.7-19.1%/day) and combined Artemia+Diaphanosoma (18.7%/day) were significantly higher than that of fish fed only Diaphanosoma (16.3%/day). Diaphanosoma had higher crude protein and crude fat contents than Artemia but the percentage of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 20:5n3 and 22:6n3, was lower than in Artermia. Results indicated the potential of Diaphanosoma as a partial substitute for Artemia in the larval rearing of sea bass at 15 ppt salinity.
    • Article

      Test of refined formulated feed for the grow-out culture of tropical abalone Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758) in concrete land-based tanks 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, JRH Maquirang, MR de la Peña & VT Balinas - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2016 - National Shellfisheries Association
      A refined formulated feed for the grow-out culture of tropical abalone Haliotis asinina was evaluated to assess its suitability for a shorter culture period (<8 mo). Refinement procedures focused on the application of additional binder (sodium alginate), use of different feed forms (molo and noodle forms), and incorporation of Spirulina spp. as alternate protein source in partial replacement of other protein sources. Groups of 22 postlarval abalone with mean initial shell length (SL, 29 ± 0.01 mm) and weight (5.67 ± 0.06 g), harvested from the mollusc nursery of Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department in Tigbauan, Iloilo, were stocked each as replicate in five plastic trays measuring 31.7×43.5×9.0 cm. The trays were suspended in five 1×2×1-m concrete land-based tanks representing the five dietary treatments. Abalone were fed either the refined formulated diet,molo form(RF-M), refined formulated diet, noodle form(RF-N), unrefined formulated diet, noodle form(UF-N), unrefined formulated diet, molo form (UF-M), and seaweed (NF), as the reference diet. Formulated diets and natural food were given at 2%-3% and 10%-15% (wet weight) of the body weight, respectively, once daily at 1600 h for 180 days. Water quality measurements were maintained at desired levels. A flow-through filtered seawater systemwith continuous aeration was provided in each tank. A parametric one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test were used to test the differences in abalone SL, weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR) while nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used for daily growth increase in SL (DGSL) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the various dietary treatments. Percent diet water stability and apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter (ADMD) and apparent digestibility of seaweed as ingredient were, likewise assessed. A Hedonic scale taste test analysis was done to assess differences in abalone meat quality. Highest mean WG (239.17% ± 26.05%), mean SL increase (91.51% ± 3.28%), DGSL (2,296.67 µm/day), SGR (4.04 ± 0.27) were attained with abalone fed RF-N. Values, however, were not significantly different (P > 0.05) for all growth parameters in RF-M except for percent increase in SL at 74.25 ± 3.11. Abalone given UF-N and UF-M showed significantly lower mean WG and SL. Survival was high and was significantly different (P < 0.05) between treatments. The highest FCR was obtained with abalone fed seaweeds. Apparent digestibility for dry matter of both the RF and UF were high at 95.67% ± 1.17% and 95.95% ± 0.45%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of ingredient seaweed was 99.4% ± 1.38%. Regression analysis of data showed better percent water stability for RF (57%; R2 = 0.954) compared with UF (38%; R2 = 0.790) after 24 h. Meat quality of the final product assessed through Hedonic scale taste testing and one-way ANOVA did not show any significant variations in taste, texture, color, odor, and general acceptability. Results have demonstrated that the refinement done on the formulated feed may enable the abalone to grow to its marketable size of about 5-6 cm in a shorter culture period (180 days) in concrete land-based tanks.
    • Article

      Use of juvenile instar Diaphanosoma celebensis (Stingelin) in hatchery rearing of Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) 

      MR de la Peña - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2001 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The effects of size, dry mass intake and nutritional value of the brackishwater cladoceran, Diaphanosoma celebensis, on the growth and survival of 15-30 day sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae reared in a static green water system were determined. The highest specific growth rate (29.4%/day) was attained in larvae fed a 1:1 combination of Artemia nauplii and adult Diaphanosoma but it was not significantly different (p>0.05) from fish fed only adult Diaphanosoma (28.8%/day) or only juvenile instar Diaphanosoma (28.6%/day). Survival rates of larvae (92.4-99.0%) fed the different live diets did not significantly differ (p>0.05). Larvae markedly prefered juvenile instar Diaphanosoma over Artemia nauplii and adult Diaphanosoma. The crude protein contents of juvenile Diaphanosoma (58.7%), adult Diaphanosoma (58.3%) and Artemia (56.7%) were substantially high and satisfied the dietary protein requirements of larvae. The fatty acid profile of the sea bass fry reflected the lipid composition of the live diet. Improved growth, survival and dry mass intake in larvae indicate the potential of juvenile Diaphanosoma in the hatchery rearing of sea bass larvae.
    • Article

      Use of thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. as source of lipid and fatty acid in a formulated diet for abalone Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus) juveniles 

      MR de la Peña, MB Teruel, JM Oclarit, MJA Amar & EGT Ledesma - Aquaculture International, 2016 - Springer Verlag
      The effects of using thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. as source of lipid and fatty acids in a formulated diet on growth, survival, body composition, and salinity tolerance of juvenile donkey’s ear abalone, Haliotis asinina, were investigated. Treatments consisted of diets either containing a 1:1 ratio of cod liver oil (CLO) and soybean oil (SBO) (Diet 1) or thraustochytrid (Diet 2) as source of lipid and fatty acids at 2 % level. Natural diet Gracilariopsis heteroclada (Diet 3) served as the control. No significant difference in growth was observed in abalone fed Diet 3 (SGR: 5.3 % BW day−1; DISL: 265 μm day−1) and Diet 2 (SGR: 5.2 % BW day−1; DISL: 255 μm day−1). Survival ranged from 78 to 85 % for all treatments and was not significantly different from each other. A 96-h salinity stress test showed highest survival of 84 % in abalone fed Diet 2 compared with those fed diets 1 and 3 (42 %). The high growth rate of abalone fed Diet 2 and high tolerance to low salinity could be attributed to its high DHA content (8.9 %), which resulted to its high DHA/EPA ratio of 10.5 %. These fatty acids play a significant role in abalone nutrition. The fatty acid profile of abalone meat is a reflective of the fatty acid profile of the oil sources in the diet. The present study suggests that the use of Schizochytrium oil in lieu of CLO and SBO can support good growth of abalone which is comparable with abalone fed the natural seaweeds diet.