Now showing items 1-10 of 10

    • Article

      Butylated hydroxytoluene: its effect on the quality of shrimp diet stored at various temperatures and on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      MN Bautista-Teruel & PF Subosa - Aquaculture, 1999 - Elsevier
      Shrimp diets with and without the antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were stored at 10°, 20°, 28°–30°, and 40°C for 10 weeks. To monitor lipolysis and lipid oxidation, free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide values (PVs), and malonaldehyde (MAL) levels were measured from the extracted lipids of the stored diets. Fatty acid levels of the diets increased between the initial and final samplings and the increase was higher (8.4%) in diets without BHT stored at 40°C after 10 weeks. Peroxide values of the extracted lipids were low and fluctuated monthly between 2.2 and 7.4 mmol/kg fat. MAL levels increased in diets with and without BHT except those stored at 10°C for 4 weeks. Diets with BHT stored at 10°C had the lowest (8.7 mg MAL/kg fat) MAL levels and diets without BHT stored at 40°C for 10 weeks had the highest (16.9 mg MAL/kg fat). Shrimp fed diets with BHT gained 5.7–6.4× their initial weight after 10 weeks of rearing. Their growth was significantly better than those fed diets without BHT (4–6×) during the 60-day culture period. Survival was significantly higher in those fed diets with BHT (87–88%) than those without BHT (75–85%). No hepatopancreatic lesions were seen in shrimp samples fed diets with and without BHT and stored at various temperatures. The incorporation of BHT in shrimp feed is necessary if the feed is to be stored at 40°C for 10 weeks.
    • Article

      Diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina Linne: Lipid and essential fatty acid levels 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, SS Koshio & M Ishikawa - Aquaculture, 2011 - Elsevier
      Experiments on diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina focusing on lipid and essential fatty acid (EFA) levels were conducted. Six isonitrogenous diets were formulated in Experiment 1 (E1) to contain 27% protein with lipid levels at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%. Experiment 2 (E2) (EFA levels), used the optimum lipid level (3.59%) in E1 with EFA supplementation of 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. Abalone juveniles [mean initial weight and shell length of 0.60 plus or minus 0.07g and 14.70 plus or minus 0.12mm (E1)], [0.60 plus or minus 0.16g and 15.30 plus or minus 0.73mm (E2)] respectively, were fed these diets at 2-5% body weight in 3 replicates. Feeding trials in 90days/experiment evaluated growth, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and fatty acid composition in abalone tissues. Results showed significantly higher growth rates (ANOVA P<0.05) with abalone fed diets with lipid levels of 2.2%, 3.6%, and 6.1% compared with those containing lipid levels of 7.6% and 9.8%. Abalone fed the lipid-free diet showed significantly the lowest growth rate among treatments. Break point analysis as a function of growth, showed optimum lipid requirement at 3.59%. Survival was high at 95-99% in both experiments. FCR values for D3 and D4 were significantly better compared to D2, D5 and D6 (E1) while no significant differences were found for D2-D6 for E2. Abalone body lipid increased with corresponding increase in dietary lipid. Addition of 18:2n, 18:3n3, and n3 HUFA showed significant improvement in weight gains up to 1.6% supplementation. Fatty acid composition of the lipid samples reflected those of the diets. Total lipid of abalone fed the lipid-free diet showed higher monoenes. Addition of EFA resulted in an increase in both n3 and n6 fatty acids. Lipid incorporation at 3.6% using a 1:1 ratio of CLO and SBO with EFA supplementation (1.6%) is best in juvenile abalone diet formulation.
    • Article

      Diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina: animal and plant protein sources 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, AC Fermin & SS Koshio - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      Growth studies were conducted to determine the suitability of animal and plant protein sources in the diet of abalone, Haliotis asinina. Juvenile abalone with mean initial weight and shell length of 0.69±0.04 g and 11.4±0.35 mm, respectively, were fed practical diets for 84 days at a temperature range of 28–31 °C. The practical diets contained 27% crude protein from various sources such as fish meal (FM), shrimp meal (SM), defatted soybean meal (DSM), and Spirulina sp. (SP). A formulated diet (diet 1) served as the control. The diets were fed to abalone at 2–5% body weight once daily at 1600 h. Weight gain (WG), increase in shell length (SL), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. Highest weight gain (WG: 454%) was attained with abalone fed diet 2 with protein sources coming from a combination of FM, SM, and DSM. This value was, however, not significantly different (P<0.05) from those fed diets 4 and 1 (Control diet) with protein sources coming from FM, SM, SP and FM, DSM, SM, respectively. Abalone fed diet 3, which used both plant protein sources, DSM and SP, showed significantly lower WG (327%). Survival was generally high ranging from 85% to 100% for all treatments. The SGR showed the same trend as the percent weight gain. The FCR and PER obtained, however, were not significantly different for all treatments. The amino acid profile of diets 1, 2, and 4 simulated that of the abalone protein, which could have been a contributing factor to the higher growth rate of abalone fed these diets. Diet 3, which contained only plant protein sources, showed relatively lower methionine values compared with the abalone muscle tissue. Although abalone are considered herbivorous animals, results of this study indicate that a combination of dietary plant and animal protein sources was necessary to attain the best growth rate.
    • Article

      Diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina: protein/energy levels 

      MN Bautista-Teruel & OM Millamena - Aquaculture, 1999 - Elsevier
      Juveniles of abalone, Haliotis asinina with mean initial weight and shell length of 0.6±0.03 g and 15±0.07 mm were fed practical diets for 90 days. The practical diets contained graded levels of protein from fish meal, shrimp meal, and soybean meal at 22 (diet 1), 27 (diet 2), and 32% (diet 3) with corresponding estimated metabolizable energy values of 3254, 3150, and 3090 kcal ME/kg diet. The amino acid profile and proximate analyses of muscle meat of the test animal and published nutrient requirements of other species of Haliotids were used as a basis for formulating and developing these practical diets. The diets were fed to abalone at 2–5% body weight once daily (1600 h) for biological evaluation in terms of weight gain (WG), increase in shell length (SL), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and for physical evaluation in terms of shell coloration of the animal. Natural food, Gracilariopsis bailinae (17% CP/2200 kcal ME/kg) (NF) fed ad libitum served as the control. Better growth rates, in terms of WG and SL, FCR and PER were noted in abalone fed the three formulated diets compared with those fed seaweed, G. bailinae. Abalone fed diets 3 (WG: 347%; SGR: 0.81; SL: 140%) and 2 (WG: 307%; SGR: 0.70; SL: 139%) showed significantly better growth rate than those fed diet 1 (WG: 252%; SGR: 0.51; SL: 132%). Natural food-fed abalone had the lowest WG (134%), SGR (0.06) and increase in SL (77%). Survival was generally high at 85–95% for all treatments. FCR (1.5–2.3) and PER (2.19–2.47) for animals fed the three diets were significantly better than for those fed natural food (0.10 PER and 6.98 FCR). Regression analysis showed the optimum protein level for juvenile abalone to be 27% with an energy level of 3150 kcal/kg ME. Abalone juveniles fed the formulated diets produced shells with light bluish green color while those fed seaweed retained the original brown color. Diet 2 which contained 27% protein, 5% lipid and 40% carbohydrates with an energy value of 3150 kcal/kg ME may be used as a basal diet for the rearing of juvenile abalone, H. asinina.
    • Article

      Evaluation of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food in abalone hatchery: Effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, MR de la Peña & AJ Asutilla - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries Association
      The performance of an agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) was evaluated on feeding postlarval abalone Haliotis asinina, focusing on the effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies. Larval abalone, obtained from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department hatchery, were reared in 60-L flow-through tanks with UV-filtered seawater. They were fed 1,200 mg A-MPD bound with either 5.0 mg/mL agar solution, 7.5 mg/mL agar solution, 10.0 mg/mL agar solution, and 12.5 mg/mL agar solution, or a natural diet consisting of diatoms at different feeding frequencies (daily, every other day, or every 2 d) starting at day 5. A 5 × 3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design tested the effects of various treatments on postlarval settlement and survival after days 15 and 90. Scheffé's postcomparison test determined differences among treatments means. Postlarval settlement and survival were not significantly different in diets bound with higher agar concentrations and tested in 3 feeding frequencies. At lower levels of agar incorporation in diets, however, settlement and survival counts became significantly higher on daily feeding. Postlarval settlement and survival were significantly highest with abalone fed a diet bound with 7.5 mg/mL agar solution on a daily feeding frequency. Average percent weight loss in the feed was higher with lower levels of agar incorporation. Average particle size of both A-MPD and diatoms was 4–5 µm. Crude protein content of A-MPD was 42.7%; that of diatoms was 14.9%. A-MPD may be used as alternative food in abalone hatcheries with the incorporation of 7.5 mg/mL agar solution fed daily to abalone.
    • Article

      Methionine requirement of juvenile tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      OM Millamena, MN Bautista-Teruel & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture, 1996 - Elsevier
      An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary requirement of postlarval Penaeus monodon for the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. Shrimp postlarvae (mean weight 21 ± 0.3 mg) were reared in 40-1 fiberglass tanks in a flow-through seawater system. Test diets (37% protein and 360 kcal per 100 g diet) were formulated containing casein-gelatin as protein sources and supplemented with crystalline amino acids to simulate the amino acid pattern in shrimp tissue protein except methionine. The diets contained graded levels of methionine at a range of 0.72–1.12% of the diet or 2.0–3.0% of protein. In diet preparation, the crystalline amino acids were pre-coated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to reduce leaching. Diets were further coated with CMC, cornstarch, and κ-carrageenan to improve water stability and the diet pH was kept at 7.0–7.2 by neutralization with 6N NaOH. Shrimp were fed the diets at 25–30% of their biomass thrice daily. At termination of the feeding experiment, various parameters including growth, survival, and feed conversion efficiency were determined and nutritional deficiency signs noted. The methionine requirement was determined from the relationship between weight gain and dietary methionine level using the broken-line regression method. The requirement of P. monodon postlarvae for methionine was 0.89% of the diet or 2.4% of protein. In a diet containing 0.41% cystine, the total sulfur amino acid requirement (methionine + cystine) would be 1.3% of the diet or 3.5% of protein. This requirement is slightly lower than the methionine level present in shrimp tissue protein.
    • Article

      Shell marking by artificial feeding of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina Linne juveniles for sea ranching and stock enhancement 

      WG Gallardo, MN Bautista-Teruel, AC Fermin & CL Marte - Aquaculture Research, 2003 - Blackwell Publishing
      A method of marking abalone (Haliotis asinina Linne) for sea ranching and stock enhancement purposes was developed. Three-month-old abalone juveniles (11.8-mm shell length, 0.28 g) were fed artificial diets for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. The width of the bluish-green shell band produced by abalone juveniles was 1.7, 2.6, and 4.2 mm after 1, 2, or 3 weeks of feeding respectively. The growth and survival of juveniles fed artificial diets did not differ from that of juveniles fed the seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae (control). Feeding the diet-fed juveniles with the seaweed thereafter produced the natural brownish shell, thus forming a sandwiched bluish-green band. An experimental release in outdoor tanks with natural growth of seaweeds and diatoms, and in a marine reserve showed that the shell band remained clear and distinct, indicating the usefulness of this shell marking method in sea ranching and stock enhancement of abalone.
    • Article

      Test of refined formulated feed for the grow-out culture of tropical abalone Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758) in concrete land-based tanks 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, JRH Maquirang, MR de la Peña & VT Balinas - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2016 - National Shellfisheries Association
      A refined formulated feed for the grow-out culture of tropical abalone Haliotis asinina was evaluated to assess its suitability for a shorter culture period (<8 mo). Refinement procedures focused on the application of additional binder (sodium alginate), use of different feed forms (molo and noodle forms), and incorporation of Spirulina spp. as alternate protein source in partial replacement of other protein sources. Groups of 22 postlarval abalone with mean initial shell length (SL, 29 ± 0.01 mm) and weight (5.67 ± 0.06 g), harvested from the mollusc nursery of Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department in Tigbauan, Iloilo, were stocked each as replicate in five plastic trays measuring 31.7×43.5×9.0 cm. The trays were suspended in five 1×2×1-m concrete land-based tanks representing the five dietary treatments. Abalone were fed either the refined formulated diet,molo form(RF-M), refined formulated diet, noodle form(RF-N), unrefined formulated diet, noodle form(UF-N), unrefined formulated diet, molo form (UF-M), and seaweed (NF), as the reference diet. Formulated diets and natural food were given at 2%-3% and 10%-15% (wet weight) of the body weight, respectively, once daily at 1600 h for 180 days. Water quality measurements were maintained at desired levels. A flow-through filtered seawater systemwith continuous aeration was provided in each tank. A parametric one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test were used to test the differences in abalone SL, weight gain (WG), and specific growth rate (SGR) while nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used for daily growth increase in SL (DGSL) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the various dietary treatments. Percent diet water stability and apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter (ADMD) and apparent digestibility of seaweed as ingredient were, likewise assessed. A Hedonic scale taste test analysis was done to assess differences in abalone meat quality. Highest mean WG (239.17% ± 26.05%), mean SL increase (91.51% ± 3.28%), DGSL (2,296.67 µm/day), SGR (4.04 ± 0.27) were attained with abalone fed RF-N. Values, however, were not significantly different (P > 0.05) for all growth parameters in RF-M except for percent increase in SL at 74.25 ± 3.11. Abalone given UF-N and UF-M showed significantly lower mean WG and SL. Survival was high and was significantly different (P < 0.05) between treatments. The highest FCR was obtained with abalone fed seaweeds. Apparent digestibility for dry matter of both the RF and UF were high at 95.67% ± 1.17% and 95.95% ± 0.45%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of ingredient seaweed was 99.4% ± 1.38%. Regression analysis of data showed better percent water stability for RF (57%; R2 = 0.954) compared with UF (38%; R2 = 0.790) after 24 h. Meat quality of the final product assessed through Hedonic scale taste testing and one-way ANOVA did not show any significant variations in taste, texture, color, odor, and general acceptability. Results have demonstrated that the refinement done on the formulated feed may enable the abalone to grow to its marketable size of about 5-6 cm in a shorter culture period (180 days) in concrete land-based tanks.
    • Article

      Use of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food for tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus 1758) post-larvae in large-scale cultures 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, JRH Maquirang, MR de la Peña & VT Balinas - Aquaculture International, 2017 - Springer Verlag
      The efficacy of using agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) as alternative food for abalone Haliotis asinina Linne post-larvae in large-scale culture was investigated. Larvae sourced from the hatchery-bred (HB) and wild-sourced (WS) broodstock were fed with either diatoms (TMT1-NF), agar-bound microparticulate diet (TMT2-A-MPD), or a combination of both feeds (TMT3-NF + A-MPD) in six 2-m3 tanks replicated over time. Three hundred thousand veliger larvae were stocked/tank containing 80 corrugated plates with mucus trails hanging on bamboo poles. Feeds were given at 0900 h starting at day 3 with seawater flow through introduced every 1400 h starting day 5. Two-way analysis of variance determined significant differences (p < 0.05) in survival and shell length between larval sources and feed types. Tukey’s post hoc test established differences among treatment means. At day 30, survival for HB- and WS-sourced larvae was significantly higher (42%) in TMT3 compared with TMT2 having 35% for HB and 38% for WS (p < 0.05). Larvae fed with TMT1 had significantly lowest survival among the three treatments. Survival at 60 and 90 days did not show significant difference for TMT2 and TMT3 regardless of broodstock source. Post-larval shell growth (90 days), from both sources fed with TMT2 and TMT3, was significantly higher than TMT1 (p < 0.05). Larval performance did not show any significant interactions between HB and WS broodstock. The use of A-MPD alone or in combination may elicit improvement in survival and shell length growth in abalone larvae regardless of larval sources. A-MPD may be used as full or partial replacements to diatoms as alternative food for abalone post-larvae in large-scale culture.
    • Article

      Utilization of feed pea, Pisum sativum, meal as protein source in practical diets for juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, PS Eusebio & TP Welsh - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      The potential of feed pea meal as an alternative protein source to soybean meal in practical diets for the juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was assessed in several experiments. Six isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 40% protein. Protein from the feed pea meal replaced 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the protein from defatted soybean meal in the diets. These values were equivalent to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, respectively, of the total protein in the diet. A negative control with no protein sources was added to the treatments. Twelve shrimp post-larvae with an average weight of 0.02±0.01 g were randomly assigned in thirty-five 60-l oval tanks equipped with a flow-through seawater system. The shrimp were fed the formulated diets at a daily feeding rate of 20–25% body weight for 90 days in five replicate samples. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of shrimp fed diets 0 up to the highest level of replacement. Weight gain of shrimp fed the negative control was, however, significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to the rest of the treatments. Specific growth rates (SGR) of shrimp showed likewise no significant differences among treatments except for the negative control. Survival of shrimp for all treatments ranged between 75% and 100%. The apparent dry matter (ADMD) and protein (APD) digestibilities of the dry feed pea in P. monodon were high at 73.38±4.98 and 92.74±2.62, respectively. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter and protein for the feed pea meal-based diets increased with increasing level of feed pea replacement. There were no significant differences in whole body composition (dry matter, protein, lipid, ash, fiber) of shrimp fed the various diets with feed pea replacement. Pellet water stability was similar for all diets even up to the highest level of replacement. The results have demonstrated that feed pea meal has a very good potential as a substitute protein source up to 100% of the protein from defatted soybean meal, which is equivalent to 25% of the total protein in the diet. An inclusion level of up to 42% in the juvenile shrimp P. monodon practical diet did not manifest any adverse effects on growth, feed intake, FCR, survival, body composition, and digestibility coefficients for dry matter and protein of the shrimp.