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    • Article

      Euryhaline rotifer Proales similis as initial live food for rearing fish with small mouth 

      A Hagiwara, S Wullur, HS Marcial, N Hirai & Y Sakakura - Aquaculture, 2014 - Elsevier
      The SS-type rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis is a common initial food for rearing fish larvae with a small mouth. However, there are commercially important fish species whose mouth sizes are too small to feed on SS-type rotifers. In 2004, we isolated a small (body length = 82.7 ± 10.9 μm; body width 40.5 ± 6.4 μm), flexible, and iloricate rotifer, Proales similis from an estuary in Okinawa, Japan. Under laboratory conditions (25 °C, 2–25 ppt) P. similis produced its first offspring on 2.5 to 2.8 days after hatching, and produced 4.3 to 7.8 offspring within 4.0 to 4.7 days life span. Batch cultured P. similis fed Nannochloropsis oculata suspension at 28.8 μg dry weight ml− 1 and cultured at 25 °C, 25 ppt filtered seawater, increased exponentially from 25 to 2400 ind ml− 1 after 11 days of culture with an overall intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) of 0.42 day− 1. The growth rate of P. similis was not significantly different when fed fresh N. oculata and super fresh Chlorella vulgaris-V12®. Total lipid per wet weight of P. similis fed by N. oculata and C. vulgaris were 2.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA) of P. similis fed N. oculata were 23.2, 0.0 and 5.3%, respectively, while these were 11.0, 17.5 and 0.5% respectively, when fed C. vulgaris. The use of P. similis to feed small mouth fish including seven-band grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus, rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata, and humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus showed that it is an excellent starter food for these species because of their high selectivity index and improved survival. In addition, P. similis was ingested by Japanese eel Anguilla japonica larvae with a complicated digestive system. The use of P. similis as starter feed for small mouth fish larvae is highly recommended.
    • Conference paper

      Status of resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Japan 

      K Okuzawa, T Takebe, N Hirai & K Ikuta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Contrary to the rapid increase in the world aquaculture production, fish production in Japan has been decreasing slightly due to the decreasing trend in seafood consumption of Japanese. Aquaculture production is approximately 20% in terms of yield, and 30% in terms of market value, of the country s total fisheries production. In Japan, about 80 species are targeted for release for sea ranching and resource enhancement purposes. The local governments (prefectures) are the main driving force in resource enhancement programs. Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, and scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensisis are examples of successful resource enhancement in Japan. Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and red seabream, Pagrus major, represent intensely released fish species in Japan, and around 10% of the total catch of those species are estimated as released fish. The low price of products and increasing costs of production, such as costs of fuel and fish meal, are the major pressing issues in coastal fisheries and aquaculture in Japan. For aquaculture, the guarantee of food safety, minimization of environmental impact, and management of natural stock populations are highly necessary in order to achieve the sustainability of the industry. For resource enhancement, budget constraint is the major issue, and possible impact on natural stocks caused by released fish should also be considered. The Government of Japan (GOJ) is implementing some measures to rectify unstable business practices of aquaculture and to improve production techniques in aquaculture. For resource enhancement, the GOJ encourages cooperation among local governments (prefectures) for seed production and release of certain targeted species in order to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of stock enhancement. In Japan, traditionally, the purpose for release was mainly sea ranching, namely harvesting all released animals. Nowadays, actual resource enhancement, i.e. the integrated release program including resource management and development of suitable nursery for released fish, is encouraged by the government. The evaluation and counter measures for the negative impact of stocked fish on genetic diversity of the wild population are also implemented. Recently, marked progress was achieved in seed production technologies of two important tropical fish species, namely coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, and humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus. These technologies are expected to contribute to the advancement of the aquaculture industry in the South East Asian region.