Browsing by Author "Smith, Ian R."
Book | Technical ReportIR Smith - 1981 - International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management; Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: ICLARM technical reports; 1The fry and fingerling industry of the milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) in the Philippines is alleged to suffer from certain imperfections. Primary among these are an annual shortage of catch necessary to meet the stocking requirements of the 176,000 ha of fishponds; high fry mortality rates during transp0rt;failure of the pricing system to perform its spatial and form allocative functions; and exploitation of fry gatherers and pond operators by middlemen and nursery pond operators who form the core around which the whole fry and fingerling industry has developed. These alleged imperfections provide the rationale for various government policies affecting the fry and fingerling industry. This study indicates a higher level of industry performance than hitherto supposed. In 1974, an estimated 1.35 billion fry were caught, adequate to meet annual stocking requirements. Allegations of fry shortage were based on simultaneous underestimation of catch and overestimation of stocking requirements, and were traced to temporary price increases resulting from expanded fishpen area, which subsequently declined. Fry storage and transport mortality rates of 8.7% and 6.6%, respectively, compared with a mortality rate of 54% during rearing, indicated that major technical inefficiencies arise in fishponds rather than in the distribution system. Of every 100 fry caught, 38 are harvested at marketable size. Monthly average fry prices among 17 major trading regions were significantly correlated, indicating a high level of information flow in the industry. An examination of the concession system which restricts first sale opportunities of gatherers indicated that concessionaires are unable to capture their full monopsony advantage due to the "competitive fringe" of smugglers. Rather than exploitation, the concession system is a form of indirect municipal tax on fry gatherers. Since the fry industry is a 57-million-peso-per-year industry upon which approximately 170,000 people directly and indirectly depend, it is suggested that the location of future milkfish hatcheries and timing of production be planned such that they complement rather than displace the natural fry fishery and distribution system.
Conference paperIR Smith & KC Chong - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research CentreHistorically, milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) has been the premier aquaculture product in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. However, there are significant differences in the industry's performance among and within these places, especially in terms of yield. These differences can be explained by different factor (land, labor, capital) endowments and by the fact that producers have generally been responsive to these conditions. In Taiwan and the Philippines, milkfish production is becoming less profitable over time. In both places, brackishwater pond producers of milkfish are caught in a cost-price squeeze as input costs have increased more rapidly than market prices. Indonesian producers also face market constraints because high regional transport costs often isolate them from major market centers. In response to declining profitability of milkfish, producers have been changing their production techniques and shifting to the culture of other species such as tilapia that currently have greater domestic or export market potential. Although total milkfish production continues to increase, in the Philippines and Indonesia at least, milkfish's traditional share of total aquaculture production in all these places has declined quite dramatically over the last 10 years, and this trend is likely to continue.