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    • Conference paper

      Current status of shrimp farming and diseases in Cambodia 

      O Lang & M Sothea - In RV Pakingking Jr., EGT de Jesus-Ayson & BO Acosta (Eds.), Addressing Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and Other Transboundary Diseases for Improved Aquatic … Diseases for Improved Aquatic Animal Health in Southeast Asia, 22-24 February 2016, Makati City, Philippines, 2016 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The farming of penaeid shrimps in Cambodia began in 1989 and has significantly expanded since 1991. Shrimp cultivation has been carried out in the four coastal provinces, i.e. Kampot, Kep, Preah Sihanouk Ville, and Koh Kong. Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and whiteleg shrimp (P. vannamei) are the main species being cultured extensively and intensively in brackishwater ponds in Kampot, Kep, and Preah Sihanouk Ville, and Koh Kong, respectively. Extensive shrimp ponds were constructed close to the mangrove areas with some containing mangroves within the pond and stocking density ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 postlarvae/ha. However, the productivity remains low at >100 kg/ ha/ year. On the contrary, intensive culture has a stocking density ranging from 300,000 to 500,000 postlarvae/ha. While high cost of investment for farm establishment, pond construction and farm operation are required, productions of newly established farms have reached 7 to 8 metric tons (MT) /ha per crop.

      The occurrence of white spot disease, monodon baculovirus disease, and yellow head disease was first reported in 1999 among cultured P. monodon in Koh Kong province causing a number of farmers to stop the intensive cultivation of black tiger shrimp. To date, only a small proportion of shrimp farmers have ventured into extensive shrimp farming with approximately 10 ha of shrimp areas currently in operation. To mitigate the negative impacts of shrimp diseases and promote the expansion of the shrimp industry in Cambodia, development of a national reporting system for aquatic animal diseases; capacity building for detection, monitoring and disease surveillance; creation of National Guidelines On Good Shrimp Aquaculture Practices; establishment of subresearch centers and concomitant funding support for marine aquaculture development and extension services; establishment of local shrimp hatcheries and provision of hands-on trainings for farmers; and strengthening collaborations among provincial officers, researchers and farmers network should be accordingly instituted.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of sustainable aquaculture in Cambodia 

      O Lang - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In Cambodia, the extension of technologies in fish aquaculture is a vital activity that contributes to improving the daily livelihood of the rural poor farmer communities. Technology extension was introduced since 1994 through a project of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and other local non-government organizations (NGOs) or international organizations (IOs) in some fish production deficient provinces. Prior to the introduction of such activities, wild fish were still abundant. From then to date, aquaculture extension is being done under the Freshwater Aquaculture Improvement and Extension Project Phase II of Japan International Cooperation Agency (FAIEXII-JICA), and Department for International Development/Danish International Development Agency (DFID/DANIDA) Projects.

      Recently, aquaculture extension is one of the national policies under the National Rectangular Strategy Policies of the Government. There are several different freshwater aquaculture systems including floating cage/pen culture, earthen pond culture and rice-fish culture, and other fish culture in smallwater bodies or aquaculture-based fisheries in Cambodia as practiced in over 20 provinces and cities, with less development focused on coastal aquaculture.

      Freshwater aquaculture production continued to grow over the past two decades and increased from 1,610 tons in 1984 to 20,760 tons in 2004, representing 11.9 times increase or growth of 16.3% per year This further increased to 74,000 tons in 2012, representing 11.9 times increase or a growth rate of 15% per year. However, aquaculture development in Cambodia is in its infancy stage compared to other countries in the region. It has encountered some problems and constraints during its development, which include inadequate and unreliable supply of good quality seed; lack of capital, fund or credit for aquaculture investment; inadequate knowledge of aquaculture technology; inadequate manpower for aquaculture extension service; and climate change, which have adversely impacted aquaculture development in Cambodia.

      In order to achieve the goal of supplying the nation s future fishery requirements through aquaculture, the Cambodia Fisheries Administration (FiA) published the Strategic Planning Framework (SPF) for Fisheries (2010-2019). Within this framework, the scenarios for future fish demand-supply for 2019 suggest that aquaculture production will increase by 15% per year to 185,000 tons by the end of 2019.