Now showing items 1-3 of 3

    • Article

      Diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina: animal and plant protein sources 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, AC Fermin & SS Koshio - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      Growth studies were conducted to determine the suitability of animal and plant protein sources in the diet of abalone, Haliotis asinina. Juvenile abalone with mean initial weight and shell length of 0.69±0.04 g and 11.4±0.35 mm, respectively, were fed practical diets for 84 days at a temperature range of 28–31 °C. The practical diets contained 27% crude protein from various sources such as fish meal (FM), shrimp meal (SM), defatted soybean meal (DSM), and Spirulina sp. (SP). A formulated diet (diet 1) served as the control. The diets were fed to abalone at 2–5% body weight once daily at 1600 h. Weight gain (WG), increase in shell length (SL), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. Highest weight gain (WG: 454%) was attained with abalone fed diet 2 with protein sources coming from a combination of FM, SM, and DSM. This value was, however, not significantly different (P<0.05) from those fed diets 4 and 1 (Control diet) with protein sources coming from FM, SM, SP and FM, DSM, SM, respectively. Abalone fed diet 3, which used both plant protein sources, DSM and SP, showed significantly lower WG (327%). Survival was generally high ranging from 85% to 100% for all treatments. The SGR showed the same trend as the percent weight gain. The FCR and PER obtained, however, were not significantly different for all treatments. The amino acid profile of diets 1, 2, and 4 simulated that of the abalone protein, which could have been a contributing factor to the higher growth rate of abalone fed these diets. Diet 3, which contained only plant protein sources, showed relatively lower methionine values compared with the abalone muscle tissue. Although abalone are considered herbivorous animals, results of this study indicate that a combination of dietary plant and animal protein sources was necessary to attain the best growth rate.
    • Article

      Hydrolyzed tuna meat by-product supplement for juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major, and its effect on growth, enzyme activity, plasma parameters, and apparent nutrient digestibility 

      RE Mamauag, JA Ragaza, S Koshio, M Ishikawa & S Yokoyama - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2014 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      A growth experiment was conducted on juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major to investigate the effect of the inclusion in fish diets, of tuna meat by-product hydrolysate which was processed through enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercially available enzyme, derived from Bacillus subtilis. Six experimental diets were formulated in the experiment. Three diets contained 50, 150 and 250 g/kg of TPM-H (tuna meat by-product hydrolysate), and two diets with the unprocessed TPM (tuna meat by-product) at an inclusion level of 50 and 250 g/kg. A control diet was formulated without any addition of the test ingredients. Treatment diets were fed ad libitum to juvenile fish with an initial average body weight of 0.81 ±0.13 g for 56 days. Results of the feeding trial suggest that the inclusion of TPM-H at 250 g/kg in fish diets improved body weight gain rate (3271.58%), feed intake (24.55 g/fish/56 days) and feed conversion efficiency (1.12) of the fish. Apparent nutrient digestibility of hydrolyzed tuna meat by-product improved compared to the unhydrolyzed ingredient. These results suggest that TPM processed as hydrolysates can be efficiently utilized by fish.
    • Article

      Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil 

      J Gao, S Koshio, M Ishikawa, S Yokoyama & REP Mamauag - Aquaculture, 2014 - Elsevier
      A study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) supplementation on growth, fatty acid composition and oxidative status of Japanese flounder juveniles. Fish (initial average body weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g) in triplicate were fed five test diets for 60 days. Control diet contained fresh fish oil (FFO, 8.9 meq/kg) with 100 mg α-tocopherol (α-Toc) equivalents/kg of VE and 500 mg ascorbic acid (AsA) equivalents/kg of VC (FFO100E/500C). The other four diets contained oxidized fish oil (OFO, 167.8 meq/kg) with varying levels of VE (mg/kg) and VC (mg/kg) (OFO100E/500C, OFO200E/500C, OFO100E/1000C and OFO200E/1000C). Fish fed FFO100E/500C and OFO100E/500C had no differences in body weight gain (BWG). However, fish fed OFO200E/1000C diet had a significantly lower BWG than FFO100E/500C. Fish fed OFO200E/500C and OFO100E/1000C showed no differences in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values compared with FFO100E/500C. Increasing the levels of VC and VE supplementation increased liver AsA and α-Toc contents, respectively. Liver α-Toc content was significantly increased with incremental dietary VC levels, indicating a sparing effect of VC on liver α-Toc content of fish. Increasing the levels of dietary VC and VE supplementations decreased concentrations of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish liver. Fish fed OFO100E/500C and OFO200E/1000C diets showed higher oxidative stress condition than those fed FFO100E/500C. In conclusion, dietary VC and VE supplementation could maintain normal growth and health condition of juvenile Japanese flounder fed OFO. However, high doses of both vitamin supplements induced fish lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress condition.