Browsing by Author "Miura, Takeshi"
Seminal plasma composition, sperm motility, and milt dilution in the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) Ionic composition of the seminal plasma and factors that initiate sperm motility in the freshwater Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus, were examined to develop an artificial seminal plasma (ASP) that can be used to dilute milt. The optimum ratio of milt:ASP that can reversibly activate the sperm and milt–ASP:ovulated eggs that will result in high fertilization rates were further determined to minimize the number of males to be sacrificed during artificial insemination. Seminal plasma of C. macrocephalus contained 17.8±0.1 mM/l potassium, 164.4±0.6 mM/l sodium, 8.4±0.0 mM/l calcium and 1.6±0.0 mM/l magnesium, and had an osmolality of 269.0±6.4 mOsm/kg, and pH of 7.8±0.2. Sperm motility was highest and longest in all electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl2, KCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) solutions of 200 mOsm/kg. Catfish sperm were motile in all isotonic NaCl–KCl solutions, and were reversibly activated in the ASP (143 mM NaCl, 30 mM KCl, 8 mM CaCl2, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 mM HEPES) solutions of pH 6.4–9.4. Altogether, these results suggest that sperm motility in C. macrocephalus was mainly initiated by a decrease in osmotic pressure, rather than ions and pH. High fertilization rates (89–94%) were observed when 10 μl milt, diluted with 1000 μl ASP, was activated with 5 ml of 0.6% NaCl (198.24 mOsm/kg) to fertilize 5 or 10 g of ovulated eggs. Results obtained from the present study provide information on sperm physiology that will lead to more efficient gamete management, and hopefully, an increase in the yield of catfish fry in the hatchery.
Testicular histology and serum steroid hormone profiles in hatchery-bred catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) during an annual reproductive cycle JD Tan-Fermin, T Miura, H Ueda, S Adachi & K Yamauchi -
Fisheries Science, 1997 - Japanese Society of Fisheries ScienceTesticular development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and related steroid hormones (testosterone or T, 11-ketotestosterone or 11-KT, 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or DHP) in serum were monitored during an annual reproductive cycle in tank-reared, hatchery-bred male catfish Clarias macrocephalus to established the season optimum for its artificial propagation. GSI values were highest in June (0.80%), and lowest in December, February, April (0.36%). At most times of the year, lobules in the testis and seminal vesicles were mostly lined with spermatogonia B (SGb) and spermatocytes (SC) and few spermatogonia A (SGa); spermatids (SD) and spermatozoa (SZ) were the least and most abundant of the spermatogenic cells, respectively. In January however, almost equal counts of SGa, SGb and SC were observed, as well as a significant increase in the percentage of SD and corresponding decrease in SZ. Serum 11-KT fluctuated at high levels, with the lowest level in January (159.42 ng/ml), and peak in September (434.72 ng / ml). Serum T levels ranged from 15-25 ng/ml, and were not markedly different throughout the annual cycle. Serum DHP levels were extremely low in January-May, and reached maximum levels in July (0.18 ng/ ml). Seasonal changes in the percentage of spermatogenic cells, GSI and serum steroid hormone profiles showed that captive, hatchery-bred male C. macrocephalus have a continuous reproductive cycle. Although milt release was not observed, males can readily be used as source of milt for artificial propagation at any time of the annual cycle, except in January.