Now showing items 1-3 of 3

    • Article

      Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values 

      E Barbier, EW Koch, BR Silliman, SD Hacker, E Wolanski, JH Primavera, EF Granek, S Polasky, S Aswani, LA Cramer, DM Stoms, CJ Kennedy, D Bael, CV Kappel, GME Perillo & DJ Reed - Science, 2008 - American Association for the Advancement of Science
      A common assumption is that ecosystem services respond linearly to changes in habitat size. This assumption leads frequently to an “all or none” choice of either preserving coastal habitats of converting them to human use. However, our survey of wave attenuation data from field studies of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, nearshore coral reefs, and sand dunes reveals that these relationships are rarely linear. By incorporating nonlinear wave attenuation is estimating coastal protection values of mangroves in Thailand, we show that the optimal land use option may instead be the integration of development and conservation consistent with ecosystem-based management goals. This result suggests that reconciling competing demands on coastal habitats should not always result in stark preservation-versus conversion choices.
    • Article

      Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection 

      EW Koch, EB Barbier, BR Silliman, DJ Reed, GME Perillo, SD Hacker, EF Granek, JH Primavera, N Muthiga, S Polasky, BS Halpern, CJ Kennedy, CV Kappel & E Wolanski - Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2009 - Ecological Society of America
      Natural processes tend to vary over time and space, as well as between species. The ecosystem services these natural processes provide are therefore also highly variable. It is often assumed that ecosystem services are provided linearly (unvaryingly, at a steady rate), but natural processes are characterized by thresholds and limiting functions. In this paper, we describe the variability observed in wave attenuation provided by marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs and therefore also in coastal protection. We calculate the economic consequences of assuming coastal protection to be linear. We suggest that, in order to refine ecosystem-based management practices, it is essential that natural variability and cumulative effects be considered in the valuation of ecosystem services.
    • Article

      The way forward with ecosystem-based management in tropical contexts: Reconciling with existing management systems 

      This paper discusses some of the challenges and opportunities that can arise when implementing ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) in tropical nations. EBM creates a new series of challenges, problems, and opportunities that must be considered in light of existing governance and management frameworks in a local context. The paper presents five case studies from different parts of the tropical world, including Oceania, insular and continental Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Caribbean, which illustrate that the implementation of EBM in watershed and marine ecosystems offers a new series of challenges and opportunities for its inclusion with existing forms of environmental governance and management. The paper suggests that EBM is best thought of as an expansion of customary management (CM) and integrated coastal management (ICM), rather than a paradigm shift, and that it has certain benefits that are worth integrating into existing systems when possible. The paper concludes that the cultural and institutional context of CM as well as the experience, technical skills, and legal basis that serve ICM programs are logical platforms from which to build EBM programs. Some guidelines for creating hybrid management regimes are suggested. In sum, declining marine species and ecosystems require urgent action, necessitating utilization of existing paradigms such as ICM and CM as a foundation for building EBM.