Now showing items 1-12 of 12

    • Article

      Aflatoxin B1 contamination of shrimp feeds and its effect on growth and hepatopancreas of pre-adult Penaeus monodon 

      MN Bautista, CR Lavilla-Pitogo, PF Subosa & ET Begino - Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1994 - Society of Chemical Industry
      A survey of aflatoxin B1 (AFLB1) levels in commonly used commercial shrimp finisher feeds in the Philippines showed a various range of values from not detected to 120 μg kg−1 using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Six experimental diets were prepared to contain various levels of AFLB1 based on survey results to determine the effects of such contamination in pre-adult shrimp Penaeus monodon (17.5 ± 0.6 g). Results showed that shrimps fed diets containing AFLB1 greater than or equal to 73.8 μg kg−1 gave comparatively poor growth rate and higher susceptibility to shell diseases. No AFLB1 residues were detected in sampled whole shrimp tissues after 62 days of exposure to AFLB1 containing diets indicating a low potential for transmission of the toxin from edible shrimp tissues to consumers. Histopathological alterations in the hepatopancreas of shrimp chronically exposed to AFLB, were observed in all samples. The degree of alterations correlated with the level of AFLB1. Based on growth performance, pre-adult shrimps can tolerate AFLB1 levels of up to 52.3 μg kg−1 in the feeds although histopathological changes were already evident in the tissues of shrimps given diets with 26.5 μg kg−1 AFLB1.
    • Article

      Changes in shrimp feed quality and effects on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      MN Bautista & PF Subosa - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      Five practical shrimp diets were formulated to contain 1, 10, 20, 50, and 100 g tetraethoxypropane (TEP) kg−1 diet. A diet with no added TEP served as the control. Diets were fed to Penaeus monodon (average weight 4.84 ± 0.11 g) juveniles to determine the level of fat oxidation tolerable to shrimp. Changes in shrimp feed quality were monitored by physical evaluation, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, fatty acid composition, and histological examination. Effects of feed quality on growth and survival of shrimp were evaluated. Results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in TBA values among treatments. Animals fed on diet 6, which contained 100 g TEP kg−1 diet, showed signs of physical deterioration after 6–8 weeks. This diet had a significantly higher TBA value (1262 mg malonaldehyde kg−1 fat) than the other treatments. The unsaturated fatty acid content of the diet decreased as its TEP content increased. Weight gains of shrimp fed diet 5 (50 g TEP kg−1 diet) and diet 6 were significantly lower than those fed the other diets while survival was similar. Hepatopancreatic lesions were not evident in all samples. Fat oxidation levels expressed in terms of TBA values of up to 828 mg mal kg−1 fat can be tolerated by Penaeus monodon juveniles in terms of growth response.
    • Article

      Effect of storage temperature on the quality of diets for the prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      MC de la Cruz, G Erazo & MN Bautista - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      The effect of storage temperature was evaluated on the basis of growth response of prawns fed for 10 weeks with diets stored at 0°C, 10°C, 28°C-31°C (ambient temperatures) and 40°C for a period of 10 weeks. Prawns were stocked at 15 pieces per 60-1 oval thank supplied with water at 28°C and 32 ppt in a flow-trough aerated system.There were five replicate tanks per treatment. Lowest weight gain (20 g) was observed for prawns fed the diet stored at 40°C and significantly higher growth response was observed as the storage temperature decreased (30.2g at 28-31°C; 37.7g at 0°C and 10°C). Body size was significantly (P<0.05) affected by diet after 6 weeks of feeding and highly significantly (P<0.01) after 8 weeks of culture.Peroxide values for diets exposed for 10 weeks to 28°-31°C (2.9 meq/kg). The highest survival rate (76%) and feed conversion (8.9%) were observed for prawns fed diets stored at low temperatures (0° or 10°C). Severe necrosis of the hepatopancreatic cells was observed in P. monodon fed with diet stored at the high temperature.
    • Article

      Effects of antioxidants on feed quality and growth of Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      MN Bautista, PF Subosa & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1992 - Wiley-Blackwell
      Four practical diets were formulated to contain 0.05%, of the following antioxidants: butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), propyl gallate (PG) or ethoxyquin (ETHQ). A fifth diet, with no added antioxidant, served as a control. The diets were fed to Penaeus monodon juveniles to determine the effects of antioxidants on feed quality and growth of the animals. The results showed no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the control and the feeds containing antioxidants in 2-thiobarbituric acid values after 0, 30, 60, and 90 days storage, respectively. There was a significant difference by the 120th day of storage, but no signs of physical deterioration were observed in any of the diets. The highest weight gains (704% and 742%) were obtained with shrimps fed diets with BHT and BHA, respectively, as antioxidants. Hepatopancreatic lesion formation was evident with shrimps fed diets containing antioxidants but not with shrimps fed a diet without antioxidant. Shrimps fed with BHT-added feed showed fewest lesions in the hepatopancreas. Although all shrimp samples given feed containing PG and ETHQ showed lesions, these were patchy in nature and did not affect the growth rates of the animals.
    • Article

      Influence of stocking density and fertilization regime on growth, survival and gross production of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in brackishwater ponds 

      PF Subosa & MN Bautista - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Twelve 0.1 ha earthen ponds were stocked at 3,500 or 7,000/ha with 1-month old nursery reared Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1.73 g). Fertilizer treatments were 125 kg chicken manure plus 4.1 kg diammonium phosphate (18-46-0) and 6.56 kg urea (45-0-0) per application for treatments U3500 and U7000 and 125 kg chicken manure plus 8.15 kg diammonium phosphate and 0.89 kg urea per application for treatments P3500 and P7000. Fertilizers were broadcast 10 days after pest eradication and every two weeks thereafter. Water was exchanged (20%) one day before fertilization throughout the 86-day culture period. Shrimp yields at harvest were: P7000, 193.6 kg/ha; P3500, 119.4 kg/ha; U3500, 97.5 kg/ha; and U7000, 82.4 kg/ha. Mean survival for each treatment was 96.2%, 97%, 89.3% and 75%, respectively. There were significant differences in shrimp yields at harvest among treatments (p < 0.05).
    • Article

      Large scale hatchery production of Penaeus monodon using natural food and artificial diets 

      MN Bautista, F Parado-Estepa, OM Millamena & EL Borlongan - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Natural food in combination with either SEAFDEC formulated or other commercial larvae diets was tested for large scale production of Penaeus monodon postlarvae. Two trials of 3 treatments each, 2 replications of each treatment, were conducted in 10 m3 circular concrete tanks. Shrimps were reared from nauplii to postlarvae. Dietary treatments for trial I included:(a) natural food (NF) alone, (b) NF+ commercial plankton substitute (PS) and (c) NF+ SEAFDEC diet (SD).For trial II, commercial powder diets SP or SMP were added:(a) NF + SP, (b) NF + PS + SP + SMP and (c) NF + SD + SP + SMP. Larvae survival was significantly higher in treatments containing the SEAFDEC diets than in the treatments receiving natural food alone (trial I) or natural food in combination with SP (trial II). Larval development was faster in the group fed the SEAFDEC diet; larvae in these groups metamorphosed into postlarvae an average of 1-2 days earlier than groups fed other diets. The presence of either SP or SMP did not improve the efficiency of the feeds. Results showed that larvae performance was affected by the nutrient composition of the diets and that by using proper feeding techniques and management of water quality, large scale hatchery production of P. monodon using natural food in combination with the SEAFDEC diet or plankton substitute is possible.
    • Article

      Lipid and fatty acid composition of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) 

      MN Bautista, MJ del Valle & FM Orejana - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Lipid and fatty acid composition of the various sections of brackishwater- and freshwater-reared milkfish were determined by chromatographic methods. Lipids consisted mainly of the neutral type, which in turn was composed primarily of triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Palmitic and stearic acids were the predominant saturated fatty acids in both types of fish, although the brackishwaterreared milkfish contained more palmitic acid and the freshwater-reared milkfish more stearic acid. Unsaturated fatty acids of C16 and C18 were more characteristic of the freshwater-reared milkfish lipid, while those of C20 and C22 were the major acids of the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipid. Saturation and unsaturation in the fatty acid composition characterized both types of fish although the brackishwater-reared milkfish lipids had fatty acids of higher unsaturations (C20 and C22).
    • Article

      The response of Penaeus monodon juveniles to varying protein/energy ratios in test diets 

      MN Bautista - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Two sets of factorial experiments were conducted for 8 weeks to determine the response of Penaeus monodon juveniles (average weights = 0.60 ± 0.16 g and 0.80 ± 0.05 g) to diets containing various protein/energy ratios. The first experiment used casein as the sole source of protein, while the other used a combination of 70%:30% casein:gelatin for its protein source.

      A two-fold increase in the body weight was achieved for prawns fed diet combinations of 40-50% protein, 5-10% lipid and 20% carbohydrate with energy values of 285-370 kcal/100 g, regardless of the protein source used. Reduction in protein content of the diet from 50% to 40% while maintaining the total energy level at 330 kcal/100 g resulted in a non-significant decrease in growth. The inclusion of 15% lipid in the diet produced adverse effects on the animal while sucrose levels beyond 20% resulted in a decreased growth rate. An increase in energy level, at constant dietary protein level, resulted in improved utilization of protein and feed conversion efficiency. Survival of the prawn was higher with diets containing casein and gelatin as the protein source than with those containing casein as the sole source of protein.
    • magazineArticle

      Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) production in brackishwater ponds applied varying fertilizer combinations 

      PF Subosa & MN Bautista - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1992 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Details are given of the production of Penaeus monodon in the Philippines reared in brackishwater earthen ponds applied with different fertilizer combinations, namely diammonium phosphate, urea and chicken manure. Results show that the shrimp showed higher yields in fertilized ponds, but increasing the concentration of fertilizers did not give a marked increase in yield - the excess fertilizer was wasted.
    • Article

      Threonine requirement of juvenile marine shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      OM Millamena, MN Bautista, OS Reyes & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      The threonine requirement was determined for juvenile marine shrimp. Penaeus monodon postlarvae, PL20, were stocked in 30-1 fiberglass tanks at ten shrimp per tank arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. They were fed amino acid test diets (40% protein) with casein-gelatin as natural protein sources and supplemented with crystalline L-amino acids to simulate the amino acid profile of shrimp muscle except for threonine. Graded levels of threonine were incorporated to obtain 0.72, 1.0, 1.28, 1.56, 1.84, and 2.12 g per 100 g diet or 1.8, 2.5, 3.2, 3.9, 4.6, and 5.3% of dietary protein. Relationship of weight gain with dietary threonine level was analyzed by the quadratic regression method to derive the threonine requirement. Results showed that the quantitative threonine requirement for growth is 1.4% of the diet or 3.5% of dietary protein. This requirement for growth conforms with the threonine level in the shrimp muscle.
    • Article

      Use of kappa-carrageenan microbound diet (C-MBD) as feed for Penaeus monodon larvae 

      MN Bautista, OM Millamena & A Kanazawa - Marine Biology, 1989 - Springer Verlag
      The performance of an artificial practical diet, kappa-carrageenan microbound diet (C-MBD) was assessed on Penaeus monodon larvae at the SEAFDEC Broodstock and Maturation Experimental Laboratory in March 1986. Shrimps were reared from zoea to post-larvae using five dietary treatments: (a) natural food - Chaetoceros calicitrans and Artemia salina ; (b) C-MBD; (c) combination of natural food and C-MBD; (d) commercial diet (microencapsulated, MED); (e) combination of natural food and commercial diet. Results showed slow development with larvae fed the commercial diet. Feeding with C-MBD in combination with natural food resulted in the highest % survival among treatments (69.6), but this was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those obtained with larvae fed natural food alone, C-MBD alone or their combination.
    • Article

      Yield of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in brackishwater ponds given different fertilizer combinations 

      PF Subosa & MN Bautista - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Yields of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in brackishwater earthen ponds were determined using different fertilizer combinations in two sets of experiments. Results indicated that the use of fertilizers was vitally needed to sustain growth of shrimps at a stocking density of 5000 individuals/ha. Application of urea (45-0-0) and diammonium phosphate (18-46-0) fertilizers at nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer rates (N:P2O5) of 15:15 and 30:15 kg/ha, together with 1 t/ha of chicken manure, was inexpensive and resulted in better yields. In another experiment, increase in the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers did not significantly improve prawn yields, but did increase the cost of production. Different salinity levels affected survival in both experiments.