Now showing items 1-20 of 30

    • Article

      Abdominal segment deformity syndrome (asds) and fused body segment deformity (fbsd) in cultured Penaeus indicus 

      The abdominal segment deformity disease (ASDD) is a new shrimp disease reported only in cultured Penaeus vannamei in Thailand. Shrimp with ASDD have deformed abdominal segment, jagged gut line and bumpy surfaces. Similar signs were observed in cultured P. indicus in the Philippines. However, aside from the signs described for ASDD, some P. indicus showing abdominal segment deformity syndrome (ASDS) had more severe deformities up to the extent that the number of body segments was reduced due to fusion. Shrimp with fused body segment deformity (FBSD) had four instead of five pairs of legs. To account the prevalence of the deformities in P. indicus, shrimp were classified into grossly normal shrimp (NS), shrimp with abdominal segment deformity syndrome (ASDS) and shrimp with fused segments (FBSD). Out of the shrimp sampled, 83.4 ± 5.4% was NS, 10.9 ± 6.2% was ASDS and 5.7 ± 3.0% was FBSD. Morphometric characteristics of the shrimp were measured. There was no significant difference in body weight (BW) among male and female NS, ASDS and FBSD. In both sexes, total length (TL) of FBSD was significantly shorter compared to NS and ASDS. Shrimp samples were also screened to be negative for known infectious viral diseases including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), P. vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV). Occurrence of ASDS and FBSD in post-larvae (PL) produced from captive and wild spawners were also determined. Based on a tank experiment, no significant difference was detected between the percentages of ASDS in PL produced from wild or captive spawners but FBSD was only noted in PL produced from the latter. Deformities generally did not affect the size of P. indicus except for the reduced length of shrimp with FBSD which when coupled with missing pleopods could lead to major economic loss for shrimp farmers if not addressed properly.
    • Article

      Approaches to stock enhancement in mangrove-associated crab fisheries 

      L Le Vay, MJHL Lebata, M Walton, JH Primavera, ET Quinitio, CR Lavilla, FD Parado-Estepa, E Rodriguez, VN Ut, TT Nghia, P Sorgeloos & M Wille - Reviews in Fisheries Science, 2008 - Taylor & Francis
      Over the last decade, hatchery production of mud crabs has become technically and economically more feasible, enabling evaluation of the potential effectiveness of hatchery release in fisheries enhancement. The high growth rates and limited movement of released crabs means that fisheries’ yields an isolated mangrove systems with restricted recruitment can be enhanced with a few months. Thus, a release program may be an effective strategy for short-term enhancement in carefully selected specific areas. To date, results are very promising; with recovery rates up to 50% and increases in fisheries’ yield up to 46% over baseline catches. In contrast, mark-recapture studies in more open mangrove system populations shows that recruitment success and subsequent stock abundance may be largely determined by habitat availability. For these populations, restoration of lost o degraded mangrove areas has been show to be effective in promoting stock recovery through natural recruitment, with replanted mangroves supporting fisheries of equivalent economic value to that of natural mangroves, though it may take some years to reach these levels. Thus, a balanced approach to stock management could integrate both hatchery-release and habitat restoration programs, depending on local conditions and over different thin scales, with parallel-co-management to support effectiveness.
    • Conference paper

      Broodstock management and seed production of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) 

      FD Parado-Estepa & J Honculada-Primavera - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Research on the maturation of Penaeus monodon at AQD has focused on three broad areas, namely, reproductive biology and ecology, induced maturation and broodstock management. Studies on reproductive biology provided information on the life cycle, ovarian maturation stages, courtship and mating behavior, minimum size at sexual maturation (sperm occurrence, first spawning), and morphological egg types. Induced maturation has mainly been done through the eyestalk ablation method. Nutritional and environmental parameters were studied to enhance reproductive performance or as an alternative to ablation. Pond-reared and wild broodstock sources and marine pen and land-based tanks as maturation systems were also tested and compared. Size, shape, color, substrate material and other aspects of tank design and construction, sex ratio, stocking density, water management, and other parameters of the management system were also studied and refined.

      Early techniques in larval and postlarval rearing of P. monodon at AQD were based on the community culture method of growing natural food in larval tanks. However, low and inconsistent survival led to a shift in rearing methods toward pure phytoplankton culture grown in separate tanks as food for the larvae. Henceforth, refinement of rearing methods have been conducted to improve larval survival through effective water management, nutrition, and disease control. Efforts are continuously being geared toward making the technology affordable to Filipino farmers.
    • Article

      Culture of Scylla serrata megalops in brackishwater ponds 

      EM Rodriguez, ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & OM Millamena - Asian Fisheries Science, 2001 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Three- to five-day old hatchery-reared megalops (4.0 to 6.4 mg body weight) of the mud crab, Scylla serrata, were cultured to the juvenile stage in 20 m2 net cages installed in brackishwater nursery ponds. To establish a suitable stocking density, megalops were stocked at 10, 20, and 30 ind·m-2 in net cages. Treatments were replicated three times over time. After 30 days of culture, mean survival of juveniles ranged from 48.3 to 53.3% and did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) among the three stocking densities. Similarly, the mean final body weights of juveniles ranging from 2.91 to 3.40 g and mass weights 458.9 to 1066 g did not significantly differ among stocking densities. These results show that stocking of crab megalops directly in net cages in a brackishwater pond is feasible at any of the stocking densities tested.
    • Conference paper

      Development of protocol for the production of hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles for soft-shell crab farming 

      ET Quinitio, GX Libunao & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Development of economically viable techniques for growing hatchery-reared juvenile crabs to suitable sizes will address the problem on the source of seed stocks for soft-shell crab farming. This paper reports the production of hatchery-reared mud crab Scylla serrata from juveniles in the nursery to 73-106 g body weight (BW) crabs in the grow-out pond for the individual system soft-shell crab farming. Likewise, the performance of hatchery-reared S. serrata, and wild S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea juveniles was determined in the soft-shell crab production set-up.

      The BW increased from 1.8-1.9 g to 78-113.7 g when stocked at 0.5 ind m-2 and from 1.6-2.3 g to 73-106.7 g at 1.0 ind m-2 after 75 days. Growth rates at both stocking densities were comparable. However, survival was significantly higher (P<0.05) in lower (63.6~c1.01%) than in higher (35.6~c3.34%) stocking density. Male S. serrata (46.0 ~c 1.75%) had significantly higher BW increase than females (39.4 ~c 2.05%). Crabs stocked at sizes of 51-60 g showed significantly greater percent increase in BW (43.26~c 0.98%) compared with those at 61-70 g (40.98~c1.33%), 71-80 g (38.55~c 1.04%), 81-90 g (36.34 ~c 1.27%) and 91-100 g (38.52 ~c 1.67%). Among the three species, hatchery-reared S. serrata (42.14 ~c 1.34%) had significantly higher mean percent BW increase compared with S. olivacea (38.23 ~c 0.49%) and S. tranquebarica (36.16 ~c 0.78%). S. serrata had significantly shorter mean culture period (24.11 ~c 0.95 days) than S. tranquebarica (28.48 ~c 0.54 days) and S. olivacea (28.75 ~c 0.34 days).
    • Article

      Effect of salinity on hemolymph calcium concentration during the molt cycle of the prawn Penaeus monodon 

      FD Parado-Estepa, JM Ladja, EG de Jesus & RP Ferraris - Marine Biology, 1989 - Springer Verlag
      Prawns (Penaeus monodon) were obtained from ponds in Iloilo, Philippines, in 1984 and 1985 and maintained in salinities from 8 to 44‰. Total hemolymph calcium was largely affected by molt stage and less so by salinity. A sharp, transient increase in hemolymph calcium occurred 3 to 6 h postmolt, followed by an equally rapid decrease from 6 h postmolt to intermolt. This biphasis response was limited to prawns in 8, 20 and 32‰S; in 44‰S, hemolymph calcium remained the same throughout the sampling period. Peak concentrations of total calcium were greater in low (8 and 20‰S) than in high salinities. Salinity had no effect on the duration of molt cycle nor on time of occurrence of molt. Almost half of molting incidents occurred between 18.01 and 0.00 hrs, and one-third between 0.01 and 06.00 hrs.
    • Article

      Effect of salinity on the osmotic, chloride, total protein and calcium concentrations in the hemolymph of the prawn Peneaus monodon (Fabricius) 

      RP Ferraris, FD Parado-Estepa, JM Ladja & EG de Jesus - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 1986 - Elsevier
      1. Osmolality and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph of Penaeus monodon became stable 1 day after molting in 32 ppt, while total protein and calcium concentrations remained stable throughout the molting cycle. When intermolt (≥ 36 hr postmolt) animals were transferred from control (32 ppt) to experimental (8–40 ppt) salinities, osmolality, chloride and total protein, but not calcium, concentrations in the hemolymph achieved steady state values 24–48 hr after transfer.

      2. The hemolymph osmolality was a linear function (slope = 0.28) of medium osmolality at salinities between 8 and 40 ppt. It was isosmotic to seawater at 698 mOsm (10 g prawns) and 752 mOsm (30 g), and was hyperosmotic to the medium below isosmotic concentrations, and hypoosmotic to those above.

      3. Hemolymph chloride concentration was isoionic to seawater at 334 mM, and was hyperregulated below isoionic concentrations, and hyporegulated to those above.

      4. P. monodon maintained its hemolymph calcium concentration between 6.4 and 10 mM when medium salinities increased from 8 to 40 ppt.

      5. Total protein concentration in the hemolymph was independent of medium salinity (8–40 ppt) and hemolymph osmolality (540–850 mOsm).
    • Article

      Extension of nursery culture of Scylla serrata (Forsskål) juveniles in net cages and ponds 

      EM Rodriguez, FD Parado-Estepa & ET Quinitio - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      To address the preference of mud crab farmers for larger size Scylla serrata juveniles (5.0–10 g body weight or BW; 3.0–5.0 cm internal carapace width or ICW), a study was conducted to compare the growth and survival of crab juveniles (2.0–5.0 g BW; 1.0–3.0 cm ICW) produced a month after stocking of megalopae in net cages when reared further in net cages installed in earthen ponds or when stocked directly in earthen ponds. In a 3 × 2 factorial experiment, three stocking densities (1, 3 and 5 ind m−2), two types of rearing units (net cages or earthen pond) were used. Megalopae were grown to juvenile stage for 30 days in net cages set inside a 4000 m2 brackishwater pond and fed brown mussel (Modiolus metcalfei). Crab juveniles were then transferred to either net cages (mesh size of 1.0 mm) or earthen ponds at three stocking densities. After 1 month, no interaction between stocking density and rearing unit was detected so data were pooled for each stocking density and rearing unit. There were no significant differences in the growth or survival rate of crab juveniles across stocking density treatments. Regardless of stocking density, survival in net cages was higher (77.11±6.62%) than in ponds (40.41±3.59%). Growth, however, was significantly higher for crab juveniles reared in earthen ponds. The range of mean BW of 10.5–16.0 g and an ICW of 3.78–4.33 cm obtained are within the size range preferred by mud crab operators for stocking grow-out ponds.
    • Conference paper

      Larval survival and megalopa production of Scylla sp. at different salinities 

      FD Parado-Estepa & ET Quinitio - In CP Keenan & A Blackshaw (Eds.), Mud Crab Aquaculture and Biology. Proceedings of an International Scientific Forum, 21-24 April 1997, Darwin, Australia, 1999 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Salinity tolerance was determined for each zoeal stage of Scylla sp. Larvae from ablated pond-grown females were abruptly transferred to salinities of 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 ppt. Spawning salinity or previous rearing salinity was 32 ppt, except for Z5 which were previously reared at 26 ppt. The mean median lethal time or LT50 values were compared between salinities. For Z1 and Z2, highest values were obtained at 20–32 ppt. Z3 had highest LT50 values at 20–24 ppt and Z4 at 24–32 ppt. For Z5, highest LT50 values were obtained at 20–32 ppt. Another batch of Z3 and Z4 were subjected to the same abrupt salinity transfers and reared to the megalopa stage. Significantly higher percentages of larvae metamorphosed to the megalopa stage at salinities of 20–28 ppt when transfer to test salinities was at Z3. When transfer was at Z4 or Z5, the highest percentage of larvae moulted to the megalopa stage at 24–28 ppt or at 28 ppt, respectively.
    • Article

      Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage 

      GS Pates Jr., ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2017 - Wiley
      The effects of antibiotics on the external deformities, growth and survival of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to oxytetracycline (OTC) (0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12 mg L-1) and furazolidone (FZD) (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg L-1) in the first and second experiments, respectively, until the late megalopa. The crab instars were grown in nursery tanks for 1 month. Larvae survived until megalopa only at 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD. These four concentrations were run simultaneously in another experiment. Morphological deformities in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) on the deformities of zoea 5 in 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 OTC and 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained in 3.0 mg L-1 OTC and 0.5 mg L-1 FZD. Deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage occurrence of deformities was observed in the 6.0 mg L-1 OTC and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD in the first and third experiments, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in OTC and FZD treatments. However, growth was significantly (P < 0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics. The study shows the effects of OTC and FZD in the morphology of mud crab. Therefore, there is a need to eliminate the use of antibiotics and find alternatives.
    • Conference paper

      Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage 

      GS Pates Jr., ET Quinitio, GF Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The effects of antibiotics on the survival, growth and external deformities of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 mgL-1 oxytetracycline (OTC) and 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mgL-1 furazolidone (furan) until the late megalopa in the first and second experiments. The treatments that gave the best results in the first and second experiments were conducted simultaneously in the third experiment. The surviving crab instar from each replicate were grown in nursery tanks for one month.

      Significantly higher survival and faster growth rate of Z5 were attained when 3 and 6 mgL-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1 mgL-1 furan were used. Morphological deformities observed in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. Percentage occurrence of morphological deformities was similar in all treatments. Significantly (P<0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained among Z5 in the treatments using 3 mgL-1 OTC and 0.5 mL-1 furan in the third experiment. Morphological deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage of deformities was observed in juveniles that were previously exposed to 6 mgL-1 OTC or 1.0 mgL-1 furan. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in both treatments of OTC and furan. However, growth was significantly (P<0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics.

      The study shows the apparent negative effects of antibiotics and highlights the need to eliminate or find alternatives, thereby preventing possible harm to the organisms and the environment.
    • Conference paper

      Mud crab nursery rearing practices 

      FD Parado-Estepa, ET Quinitio & EM Rodriguez - In ET Quinitio, FDP Estepa, YC Thampi Sam Raj & A Mandal (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar-Workshop on Mud Crab Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 10-12 April 2013, Tamil Nadu, India, 2015 - Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture (MPEDA)
      The need for seeds for expansion of the mud crab industry led to the development of the hatchery technology. The nursery technology was developed as this served as a link between the hatchery, which produces megalopae or early crab instars, and the grow-out phase which requires bigger crab juveniles for a higher yield. The nursery has two phases, the first ending with production of crablets with 1- 1.5 cm carapace width (CW) and the second phase with crablets of 2.5-3.0 cm ICW. The more commonly recommended system employs stocking of megalopae or crab instars in net cages installed in ponds. Locally available unprocessed food and commercially available shrimp formulated diet are used for feeding. However, recent studies have successfully used formulated nursery diet for mud crab. One of the main problems in the nursery is cannibalism, and several strategies have been investigated and tried to address the problem.
    • Article

      Notes on the completion of the life cycle of Penaeus japonicus in captivity in the Philippines. 

      ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & E Coniza - Philippine Journal of Science, 1991 - Science and Technology Information Institute
      Penaeus japonicus nauplii from wild spawners were reared up to the early postlarval stage (PL20) in 12-t concrete tanks. A survival rate of 13-15% was obtained. Hatchery-reared postlarvae were restocked in concrete tanks for grow-out. After six months, survival rate was 49.3% with mean body weight of 20 g and carapace length of 21-33 mm. Ablated and unablated females were stocked together with males at 1:1 sex ratio in broodstock tanks. After three months, 11% of the ablated prawns spawned whereas 1.4% of unablated females spawned after five months. Nauplii from these spawnings were reared up to the adult stage thus completing the life cycle of J. japonicus in captivity.
    • Conference paper

      Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata fed diets supplemented with trytophan at two stocking densities 

      VR Alava, MA Lucero, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Cannibalism has been recognized as one of the major problems in crab culture. The use of dietary tryptophan (TRP) that has been reported to reduce cannibalism in crabs under laboratory conditions was verified in pond nursery culture at two stocking densities. The first phase used hatchery-produced early crab instar. After 3-4 weeks, survivors were sorted and the small size crabs were further reared in the second phase. Crabs were stocked in 12-m2 net cages installed in brackishwater pond and fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. The feeding scheme used was a combination of mussel meat (M) and formulated diet (FD) at 30:70 ratio. The original FD contained 45% crude protein (used in Experiment 1, 2 and 3) that was lowered to 40% crude protein in the new basal diet used in the succeeding experiment. The two TRP-supplemented diets had 0.5% and 0.7% TRP levels. Results showed that the TRP-supplemented feeds did not give consistent results in terms of growth and feed conversion ratio, indicating that the original basal diet (0.4% TRP and 45% crude protein) or the new basal diet (0.4% TRP and 40% crude protein) were sufficient to be used together with mussel meat as feed for crab juveniles. Higher survival rates were obtained at 50 m-2 (phase 1) and 10 m-2 (phase 2) than at 30 m-2 and 5 m-2 stocking density, respectively. All trial runs produced positive returns on investment.
    • Conference paper

      Nursery culture of mud crab Scylla serrata using different feeding rates 

      VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The effect of different feeding rates on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 (3-week each) nursery culture of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was determined. Minced mussel meat and formulated diet (at a ratio of 30:70) were fed to crabs. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery earthen pond at stocking densities of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630h h. In Phase 1, feed conversion ratio (FCR) at a feeding rate of 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire three weeks was the lowest (p<0.05) while survival, body weight (BW), carapace width (CW) and carapace length (CL) were not different (p>0.05) among crabs given different feeding rates. For Phase 2, the feeding rate of 40-30-20% of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) resulted in lowest (p<0.05) FCR that was not significantly different from FCRs of crabs fed 50-40-30% and 60-50-40% of BW. Crab BW, CW and CL were not different (p>0.05) among feeding rate treatments. Profitability was better when feeding rate used was 100% of initial crab biomass day-1 for the entire Phase 1 or 100-50-40% of crab biomass day-1 (for week 1-2-3). A feeding rate of 50-40-30 % of crab biomass day-1 (week 1-2-3) was more profitable in Phase 2.
    • Conference paper

      Nursery culture of mud crab, Scylla serrata, using different ratios of natural food to formulated feed 

      VR Alava, JD Sumile & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The effect of feeding different ratios of natural food to formulated feed on the production and profitability of Phases 1 and 2 of nursery culture (3 weeks per phase) of hatchery-produced crab Scylla serrata was investigated. The feeds consisted of: mussel meat (M) alone, formulated diet (FD) alone, and their combination at M:FD ratios of 5 : 95, 10 : 90, 15 : 85, 20 : 80, 25 : 75 and 30 : 70. The crabs were stocked randomly in 12-m2 net cages installed in the nursery pond at stocking density of 50 m-2 for Phase 1 and 10 m-2 for Phase 2. Crabs were fed three times daily at 0830, 1300 and 1630 h. Results showed that in both phases, the survival rate, body weight, carapace width, and feed conversion ratio of crabs fed M, FD, and combination at different ratios were not significantly different (p>0.05). Profitability was better in 15 M:85 FD or 20 M :80 FD (Phase 1) and 30 M:70 FD ratio (Phase 2). The use of complete formulated diet as feed for crabs reduced the reliance on wet natural food.
    • Article

      Osmotic and chloride regulation in the hemolymph of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon during molting in various salinities 

      RP Ferraris, FD Parado-Estepa, EG de Jesus & JM Ladja - Marine Biology, 1987 - Springer Verlag
      The effect of molting on osmotic and chloride concentrations in the blood of the prawn Penaeus monodon Fabricius (20±3 g) at various salinities was investigated. Prawns were obtained from ponds in Iloilo, Philippines, in 1984. They were stocked in salinities of 8, 20, 32 and 44‰, and their hemolymph was sampled during molt (Time 0), and then 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10 and 14 d after molting. Prawns during and immediately after molt tended to conform to the environmental osmolality. Subsequent postmolt (≧0.5 d) stages displayed more divergence from external salinity. The isosmotic point was higher (940±30 mOsm kg-1) during molt than during intermolt (663±8 mOsm/kg-1), suggesting different osmotic requirements in early molt. Hyperregulation of hemolymph chloride below 20‰ S, as well as isoionic point (301±6 mM), were independent of molting stage. At 20‰ S and above, newly molted (0 to 0.25 d post-molt) individuals tended to conform to the external chloride concentration while intermolt (≧0.5 d) post-molt individuals did not. Contribution of hemolymph chloride to hemolymph osmolality was greater during intermolt than during ecdysis, suggesting an important role for other negatively charged ions during molt. When molt occurred in 20‰ S (the test salinity most similar to the isoionic salinity), there was little or no change in hemolymph osmolality or chloride concentration from 0 to 14 d postmolt. At 8, 32 and 44‰ S, the change from molt to intermolt values in hemolymph osmotic and chloride concentrations was hyperbolic. Non-linear least-squares regression showed that prawns generally achieved intermolt values within 1 d after molting. Prawns at intermolt regulated hemolymph osmolality (620 to 820 mOsm kg-1) and chloride concentration (300 to 450 mM) at a much narrower range than during molt (520 to 1 170 mOsm kg-1 and 250 to 520 mM, respectively). Hemolymph osmolality was a more sensitive indicator of physiological response than hemolymph chloride concentration. Distribution and culture of P. monodon might be limited in low salinities by its ability to maintain a hemolymph osmolality ≧500 mOsm kg-1 during molt and ≧600 mOsm kg-1 in intermolt, and in high salinities by its capacity to reduce the hemolymph osmolality from values at molt to those in intermolt. Osmotic and chloride concentrations in the blood of P. monodon clearly varied with both molt stage and salinity of the medium. Dependence on external factors, however, gradually declined in older molt stages, suggesting a reduction in integument permeability and greater development of ion absorption/secretion mechanisms as the exoskeleton hardened.
    • Article

      Quality assessment of newly hatched mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae 

      ET Quinitio, JJ dela Cruz-Huervana & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2018 - Wiley
      Starvation and exposure to formalin were investigated as possible stress tests for evaluating the quality of mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae. For the starvation stress test, newly hatched zoeae stocked in 150-ml containers were either starved or fed rotifers. Similarly, newly hatched zoeae were stocked in containers with seawater of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 mg/L formalin for the formalin stress test. The zoeae from the same batches were used for seed production to monitor their performance and validate the results of stress tests. Starvation was found to be unsuitable for larval quality evaluation. However, the impact of initial food deprivation on the newly hatched larvae indicates that feeding immediately after hatching is necessary for mud crab larvae. Exposure of larvae to 40 mg/L formalin for 3 hr appeared to be a reliable and practical method for larval quality assessment as the survival of larvae in the mass production tanks validated the classification of good and poor quality batches in the stress tests. On this basis, a hatchery operator can decide which batch should be cultured further. Finally, there appears to be a link between the quality of larvae and the performance at the megalopa and early juvenile crabs.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

      FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.

      Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.
    • Conference paper

      Research on crustaceans 

      FD Parado-Estepa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Crustacean research at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department during the last three years focused mostly on the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Studies were done along six problem areas: (1) developing spawning techniques for captive broodstock, (2) defining physico-chemical levels tolerable by larvae or postlarvae, (3) finding alternative feeds or fertilizers for extensive culture, (4) reducing the cost and evaluating the quality of formulated feeds for semiintensive culture, (5) preventing and controlling disease, and (6) documenting the chemicals used in shrimp culture and their effects on the environment. To reduce feed costs, substitutes for expensive feed components were screened and the specific nutrient requirements of tiger shrimp during culture were determined. A few studies were made on other crustaceans. The vitellogenin levels during maturation of the white shrimp P. indicus were measured. The digestibility of feedstuffs was also tested in the white shrimp. Culture techniques are being developed for the mudcrab Scylla serrata in ponds, pens, and cages.