Now showing items 1-4 of 4

    • Article

      An evaluation of indigenous protein sources as potential component in the diet formulation for tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, using essential amino acid index (EAAI) 

      VD Peñaflorida - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      The essential amino acid index (EAAI) could be used in screening potential protein sources. However, when formulating diets, EAAI should be supported with feeding trials and digestibility tests to determine the extent of incorporation of these protein sources in Penaeus monodon diets. Using whole P. monodon juvenile as the reference protein, local fish meals were found to be good protein sources with an EAAI of 0.92 to 0.95, in addition to white and Peruvian fish meals, shrimp meal, squid meal and soybean meal (EAAI of 0.96, 0.94, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.87, respectively). The amino acid pattern (A/E ratio) of the protozoeal, juvenile and adult stage of P. monodon showed increasing arginine and decreasing phenylalanine with growth stage.
    • Article

      Evaluation of plant proteins as partial replacement for animal proteins in diets for Penaeus indicus and P. merguiensis juveniles 

      VD Peñaflorida - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2002 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The growth rate and survival of two white shrimps, Penaeus indicus and P. merguiensis, fed diets in which fishmeal was partially replaced with plant protein sources were investigated in three trials. In trial 1 with P. indicus, soybean, yeast and leaf meals of kangkong, papaya and Cassia tora L. were screened as partial substitutes for fishmeal. The total biomass of shrimp fed 20% yeast (20yeast) was highest but not significantly different than that of shrimp fed 10yeast and 10papaya. Survival was highest with 20yeast, 10papaya and 10yeast. Shrimp fed Cassia tora L. had the highest weight gain and SGR but their survival was similar to those fed poor performing diets. In trial 2 with P. merguiensis, the ingredients were modified by decreasing fishmeal and increasing the yeast and soybean substitution. The biomass of the shrimp fed 10 yeast was similar to that of the shrimp fed 20yeast and 26 soybean, the weight gain and SGR were similar to shrimp fed 20yeast while survival was highest but not different from 20yeast and 26 soybean. In trial 3 with P. indicus, weight gain and SGR were best with 20yeast and 34soybean. However, biomass and survival did not differ among replacement levels.

      The performance of the white shrimp varied with different levels of yeast and soybean meal incorporation. The response of P. indicus was best with 20yeast (15% by weight) or 34soybean meal (34% by weight) while that of P. merguiensis was with 10yeast (7% by weight), 20yeast (15% by weight) or 26soybean meal (26% by weight). Partial replacement of fishmeal with yeast or soybean meal would result in lower feed costs but the use of these feeds needs further refinement since survival was low in all treatments. Rearing techniques, such as increasing the feeding frequency, simulating deep pond conditions or using adequate substrates, should be refined.
    • Article

      Growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed a diet lacking vitamin supplements in a modified extensive culture system 

      AT Triño, VD Peñaflorida & EC Bolivar - Aquaculture, 1992 - Elsevier
      Penaeus monodon juveniles with mean initial weight from 0.11 to 0.17 g were fed diets with and without vitamin supplement. The diets contained 34% protein and 8% fat. The animals were stocked at 5/m2 in 320-m2 earthen ponds and reared for 135 days. Growth, survival, net production, and net cost of production per kg of P. monodon were not significantly affected even if supplemental vitamins were eliminated from the diet. The absence of extra vitamins from the diet may have been compensated either by the basal diet used or by ingestion of natural food existing in the ponds. In either case, the possible influence of vitamins from these sources is manifested in the overall effects on growth, survival and net production of prawns when no vitamin supplement is added to the diet. Results obtained showed that the difference between diets in cost of production was statistically not significant (P > 0.05). However, the favorable cost difference of P 18.02 per kg of prawns produced would make it more profitable to use the diet without vitamin supplement in a modified extensive culture system.
    • Article

      The macronutrient composition of natural food organisms mass cultured as larval feed for fish and prawns 

      OM Millamena, VD Peñaflorida & PF Subosa - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1990 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The macronutrient composition of natural food organisms that are mass cultured as feed for the larval stages of fish and prawns in the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department was determined by chemical analysis. The food organisms included five species of marine phytoplanktons (algae): Chaetoceros calcitrans, Skeletonema costatum, Tetraselmis chui, Chlorella vulgaris and Isochrysis galbana, and two zooplanktons: Artemia sp. nauplii (San Francisco Bay strain) and Brachionus plicatilis. The algal species were grown in batches on Guillard and Ryther media and harvested during the exponential phase of growth using a procedure which preserved cellular integrity and prevented cell lysis. The zooplankton were cultured using standard techniques adopted at the SEAFDEC Larval Food Laboratory. Each species was analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, fiber and ash) and for mineral content (calcium and phosphorous). Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was determined by difference. For the five algal species, the protein, fat and NFE contents varied from 22% to 48%, 2% to 16% and 14% to 24%, respectively. The zooplanktons had higher protein and fat contents than any of the phytoplankton species except I. galbana which had the highest fat content. On the other hand, the phytoplanktons, particularly the diatoms which have a siliceous cell wall, contained significantly higher quantities of inorganic matter (ash). C. vulgaris had the highest fiber content which may be attributed to its cellulosic cell wall.