Now showing items 1-9 of 9

    • Article

      Apparent digestibility of selected feedstuffs by mud crab, Scylla serrata 

      MR Catacutan, PS Eusebio & Si Teshima - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      A feeding experiment was conducted to determine apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), crude protein (ACPD), crude fat (ACFD), crude fiber (ACFbD), nitrogen-free extract or NFE (ANFED), and crude ash (AAD) of selected feed ingredients for mud crab, Scylla serrata. The nine feed ingredients were Peruvian fish meal, squid meal, Acetes sp., meat and bone meal, copra meal, wheat flour, rice bran, corn meal, and defatted soybean meal. A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF diet and 30% of the feedstuff) were used with Cr2O3 as external indicator.

      The ADMD of the RF and test diets were high except for diet with meat and bone meal. Crude protein, crude fiber, and ash of feedstuffs were digestible in mud crab. Nutrients in squid meal, corn meal, and defatted soybean meal were digested well (ACFbD>95%; ANFED>92%; AAD>71%) compared with nutrients in the meat and bone meal. The AAD of copra meal, wheat flour, rice bran, and meat and bone meal were similar. The ACFD in carbohydrate-rich plant feedstuffs were significantly higher than that in protein-rich animal feedstuffs. For this species, the relative amounts of dietary protein and NFE in feedstuffs had an effect on the ACFD but not on ADMD.
    • Book

      Cage nursery of high-value fishes in brackishwater ponds: seabass, grouper, snapper, pompano 

      J Madrones-Ladja, N Opiña, M Catacutan, E Vallejo & V Cercado - 2012 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 54
      This extension manual describes nursery pond requirements, nursery rearing procedures, common diseases of young marine fish, and economic analysis of cage nursery as an enterprise separate from hatchery and grow-out culture.
    • Article

      Growth and body composition of juvenile mud crab, Scylla serrata, fed different dietary protein and lipid levels and protein to energy ratios. 

      MR Catacutan - Aquaculture, 2002 - Elsevier
      The effect of different dietary protein and lipid levels, and protein to energy (P/E) ratios on growth and body composition of the mud crab, Scylla serrata, was evaluated. Six practical test diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (32%, 40% and 48%) at two lipid levels (6% and 12%), each with P/E ratios ranging from 20.5 to 31.1 mg protein/kJ. Individual crabs were stocked in 36 units of 60-l tanks and maintained on a 40% protein diet until each molted (M0). Newly molted crabs were weighed and fed the test diets until termination at 30 days from the third molt (M3+30). Crabs were monitored daily and body weight (BW) taken after each molt, at intermolt and at termination. Average initial BW (11.18±0.66 g) was taken at 18 days after M0. Carapace width (CW) at M3+30 and of the exuviae (at molt 1, 2, and 3 or M1, M2 and M3), weight of exuviae (M1 to M3), feed conversion ratio or FCR, duration of intermolt, and total number of days of feeding test diets (M0 to M3+30) were determined. At the end of the study, crabs were freeze-dried for analysis of nutrients in the flesh, exoskeleton and fat body. The FCR (3.21–4.21), intermolt duration and total number of days of feeding test diets (111.3–131.2 days) were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Analysis of covariance was used with CW at M1 and BW at M0+18 as covariates. CW in the 40% protein with 6% lipid or 40/6 diet (P/E ratio, 27.5 mg protein/kJ) did not increase when lipid was increased to 12% (40/12), and it was significantly wider than crabs fed the 48/6 and 48/12 diets (P/E ratios, 31.1 and 27.2 mg protein/kJ). CW and BW did not differ in the 40% and 32% protein diets and were not affected by dietary lipid level at every level of protein. Ca in the exoskeleton was lowest in the 32/6 diet, while exuviae weight was about one-fourth of BW. Crude fat in the lipid deposit of crabs fed 48% protein diets were low. Results showed that the mud crab, S. serrata, grow well when fed diets containing 32–40% dietary protein with either 6% or 12% lipid at dietary energy ranging from 14.7–17.6 MJ/kg.
    • Article

      Growth and yield of Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) fed different grow-out diets 

      EB Coniza, MR Catacutan & JD Tan-Fermin - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2003 - The Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      Juveniles of the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (3.6±0.17 g; 78.0±0.09 mm) were fed one of four diets: a laboratory-formulated diet of 18.9% (Diet 1) or 34.2% (Diet 2) protein, a com- mercial feed pellet of 28.9% protein (Diet 3) or a diet of 80% blanched chicken entrails and 20% rice bran (31.7% protein; Diet 4). After 120 days of culture, catfish fed Diet 2 grew significantly better (p<0.05) than the other groups, reaching 108.9 g and 232.8 mm (daily weight gain 0.88 g; specific growth rate 2.9%), with a condition factor of 0.86 and production of 18.2 kg per 25 m2 pen. Feed conversion with Diets 2 and 3 (2.5 and 2.3, respectively) was better than with Diets 1 and 4 (3.4 and 5.0). Survival (68-81%) did not differ significantly among treatments (p>0.05). Catfish fed Diet 2 had the highest apparent lipid retention (131.7%). The protein efficiency ratio was lowest (1.3) in Diet 2, but did not differ significantly from Diets 1 and 3. Catfish fed Diet 4 were fatty and had a lower crude protein content. Results suggest that C. macrocephalus fed 34.2% crude protein have a significantly higher weight and total yield. Further, a taste test showed that odor, flavor and appearance did not differ amongst the diets.
    • Conference paper

      Healthy and wholesome aquaculture. 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, MR Catacutan & EC Amar - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The concept of healthy and wholesome aquaculture as a holistic approach to sustainable food-fish production has gained more relevance since it was discussed in a similar SEAFDEC forum almost a decade ago. Similar concepts to optimize yield from various production systems with least impact on the environment include Best Management and Good Aquaculture Practices. The three prioritized areas of disease control, food safety and environmental integrity that were identified during the first Fish for the People Conference in 2001 guided the research and development strategies for the past decade. The dynamic nature of aquaculture, however, also paved the way for major species introductions that changed the regional production scenario altogether.

      An important component of effective disease prevention and control is the development of diagnostic techniques. In response to recommendations made in 200I during the first Fish for the People Conference, diagnostic procedures have been harmonized, classified according to levels of complexity, and a few have been translated into techniques for pond-side application. Disease surveillance and reporting have been enhanced in most countries and the awareness about transboundary diseases has been heightened. The region, however, still has a lot to learn about bringing in new and exotic species and their accompanying threat of disease introduction. The past decade has seen the replacement of Penaeus monodon by P. vannamei as the major shrimp species in culture that has resulted in the introduction of major viral diseases like infectious myonecrosis virus (lMNV) and taura syndrome virus (TSV). The first outbreak of koi herpes virus (KHV) occurred in Indonesia in 2002 and Japan in 2003, and the disease continues to affect the koi and common carp industry in some countries in Asia (Lavilla-Pitogo & Nagasawa 2004). Various parasites have become major threats to sustainable marine fish production. Thus, controlling the spread of important pathogens through the introduction of exotic fish species, or the transfer of infected fish to another facility or to wild habitat remains a major problem.

      The development of specific-pathogen-free stocks and the corresponding implementation of biosecurity measures are the most significant advancements to control viral diseases each a prerequisite of the other to guarantee successful production. The vastness of land-based aquaculture systems, however, makes the cost of implementing biosecurity prohibitive, thus, there remains the need for additional health implements to boost fish health like vaccines, immunostimulants, probiotics, chemotherapeutics and disinfectants. Although major research efforts have been devoted to develop such products, satisfactory field test results are wanting for most of them. The issue on unwanted residues in marketable fish products and the fate of antimicrobials and chemicals in the environment are the major deterrents for their widespread application in aquaculture. Furthermore, the lack of fish health professionals that are qualified to prescribe drugs and chemotherapeutants in aquaculture is an issue that needs urgent action in the region.

      The clamor for aquaculture to reduce its dependence on fish meal as the source of protein in artificial feeds has led to numerous studies about fishmeal substitutes. The search for suitable alternative fish feed ingredients may now require a combination of biochemical engineering and manufacturing to enhance the nutritional composition of non-traditional protein sources. Fishmeal substitutes and other feed ingredients that will not compromise fish health and drastically alter carcass composition needs to be developed. Since proper feed management is a key component for farm profitability and sustainability as well as in the reduction of environmental pollution, extension and technology transfer should continue so that various stakeholders will be informed of their responsibility. Efforts to improve fish feed development should continue keeping in mind that feed is a key determinant of fish health.

      For aquaculture to meet the target production to supply the protein requirements of a burgeoning global population, production systems should further emphasize the key components of keeping diseases under control, producing fish that pass food safety standards, and maintaining the integrity of the culture system and its environment. In various countries, supportive efforts are in the form of certification, accreditation and compliance of aquaculture facilities with standards. However, aquaculture, being a relatively new sector in the food production industry, needs to harmonize its efforts with other common resource users.
    • Book

      Mud crab nursery in ponds 

      ET Quinitio, E Rodriguez, RF Agbayani, B Juanga, D Baticados, M Catacutan & R Bombeo - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 47
      An extension manual that is highly illustrated, detailing the biology, nursery, harvest, marketing, costs-and-returns of mudcrab nursery in ponds.
    • Article

      Netcage rearing of the Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in brackishwater pond: The technical and economic efficiency of using high protein diets in fingerling production 

      JA Madrones-Ladja & MR Catacutan - The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2012 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      Intensification in the grow-out culture of high-value fish requires a large quantity of quality fingerlings. Fingerling production is a component of fish farming that comprises nursery and grow-out culture, and may be a commercial enterprise option for fish farmers with limited pond area. The nursery rearing of the Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) was conducted in netcages inside a brackishwater pond. The fish were fed with two isocaloric, high-protein diets formulated at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) and a control treatment: diets A (40.40% crude protein, CP) and B (46.17% CP), and trashfish (TF) as control. Hatchery-bred seabass early juveniles of two size groups (S1, 4.0 ± 0.2 g; S2, 2.40 ± 0.03 g) were stocked at 75–100 fish per m3 and given diets A or B at 6–10% of average body weight (ABW) d-1, or TF at apparent satiation. Seabass given the formulated diets attained the desired size (≥ 20–40 g) after 45 d but not the fish fed with trashfish. Size and treatments showed significant effects on final ABW, although no significant interaction between these factors was shown to affect body weight. As expected, S1 fish attained a significantly higher ABW (30.7 ± 18 g) compared with S2 fish (20.7 ± 11 g) regardless of diet treatment. Seabass fed with trashfish exhibited significantly lower final ABW (6.6 ±1.6 g) than those fed Diet A (33.4 ± 6.5 g) or Diet B (37.1 ± 9.4 g). Fish size did not have any significant effect on specific growth rate (SGR), but diet treatments did. SGR was significantly better when either Diet A (5.2 ± 0.30) or B (5.4 ± 0.20) was used compared with the SGR of seabass fed with trashfish (1.7 ± 0.5). Although size and treatment did not show significant interaction on fish survival, the use of bigger seabass resulted in higher survival (89 ± 11%) compared with smaller seabass (80 ± 11%). Regardless of size, similar survival was attained in seabass fed Diet A (89 ± 6%) or B (95 ± 5%), significantly higher than that in seabass given trashfish (72 ± 6%). An interaction between size at stocking and diet treatment significantly affected protein efficiency ratio (PER). When S1 fish was used, diets A and B gave similar PER. However, when S2 fish was used, diet A gave significantly higher PER (2.49 ± 0.02) among the treatments (P < 0.05). Regardless of size, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in the mean production cost, revenue and income among the three diet treatments. Moreover, post hoc analysis using Tukey’s HSD test further showed that use of diet B resulted in significantly higher revenue (PhP25,132.80) and income (PhP12,597.47) compared with the two other treatments. Trashfish treatment gave the least revenue (PhP 9,525.60) and negative income (- PhP 1,798.40). Production cost was not significantly different between diets A and B. Hence, diet B is the most economically viable and productive diet treatment. The low break-even price of fingerlings obtained for diet B showed that selling price can still be reduced to lower production cost in grow-out farming.
    • Book chapter

      On-farm feed management practices for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Philippines 

      MRR Romana-Eguia, MA Laron & MR Catacutan - In MR Hasan & MB New (Eds.), On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture, 2013 - Food and Agriculture Organization
      Series: FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper; No. 583
      The contribution of the Philippines to tilapia production in Asia has increased steadily in the past five years as it addresses hunger and poverty alleviation in the region. Commercial tilapia aquaculture in the Philippines has improved as farmers have become aware of the importance of adopting innovative husbandry technologies. These include the use of intensive culture, using novel feed ingredients, improving the quality of industrial aquafeeds, adopting cost- effective feeding strategies and efficient pond fertilization methods, and culturing improved genetic strains. A case study was conducted to: a) assess current tilapia feed management practices; b) determine recent nutrition-based innovations that include the use of alternative feed ingredients, the adoption of nutritionally complete commercial tilapia feeds, and improvements to feed management practices; and c) evaluate these factors in terms of improved production efficiencies. Thirty-two farmers from selected tilapia cage hatcheries, pond hatcheries, grow- out cages and ponds in Regions III and IV-A (known major tilapia producing regions in the Philippines) were interviewed. The issues addressed included their farm management practices, with particular focus on tilapia feed preferences; quality, procurement and storage methods; and feeding strategies. Their responses were collated and analysed in the context of information simultaneously gathered from the scientific literature, popular publications and relevant websites. The results from the case study highlight the importance of farmers being trained and remaining well-informed about recent improvements in feed technologies and the use of efficient cost-saving feeding strategies to optimize the production of seed and marketable tilapia. Recommendations on how to increase tilapia production through improved feed and feed management practices are described. Finally, recommendations for local regulatory agencies to implement aquafeed quality and nutrient standards are provided.
    • Article

      Sulphur amino acid requirement of juvenile Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer 

      RM Coloso, DP Murillo-Gurrea, IG Borlongan & MR Catacutan - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1999 - John Wiley and Sons
      The dietary requirement of juvenile Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer for total sulphur amino acids was studied. Fish (average initial weight of 2.59 plus or minus 0.08 g) were reared in twelve 500 L fibreglass tanks provided with flow-through seawater at 26 degree C and salinity of 31 ppt for 12 weeks. They were fed semipurified test diets containing 6.2, 7.2, 8.1, 9.0, 10.8, or 12.6 g methionine/kg dry diet and a basal level of 3.1 g cystine/kg dry diet. The mean crude protein of the diets (containing defatted Peruvian fishmeal, squid meal, soybean meal, and free amino acid mixture to simulate the pattern of hydrolysed sea bass protein) was 46.02 %. The crude fat content of the diets was 10.51 % from a 1:1 mixture of cod liver oil and soybean oil. Survival was 100 % in all treatments. On the basis of the growth response, the total sulphur amino acid requirement of juvenile Asian sea bass was estimated to be 13.4 g/kg dry diet (2.9 % of protein). Fish fed low levels of L-methionine had significantly lower weight gains and feed efficiency ratios as well as slightly higher hepatosomatic indices. No nutritional deficiency signs were observed other than growth depression in fish fed on diets that were low in methionine. This information is valuable in further refinement of formulations of practical diets for the Asian sea bass.