Now showing items 1-4 of 4

    • Article

      Comparative study on the embryonic development of three mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      MCD Ates, GF Quinitio, ET Quinitio & RC Sanares - Aquaculture Research, 2012 - Blackwell Publishing
      Morphological changes in the embryos, egg size and development, incubation period and morphological structures of newly hatched zoea of three mud crab Scylla species were determined. The three species exhibited similar embryonic development composed of 10 stages. The mean egg diameter of Scylla serrata was significantly larger (P<0.05) at the prehatch stage. The mean egg diameters of Scylla tranquebarica and Scylla olivacea were similar (P>0.05). The incubation period was the longest in S. serrata and the shortest in S. olivacea. There was a positive relationship between egg size and larval size, as S. serrata exhibited the largest egg size and first zoea. However, no correlation was detected between egg size at prehatch and lengths of the morphological structures of the newly hatched zoea. The three species exhibited similar lengths of cephalic structures, but S. olivacea had significantly shorter (P<0.05) abdominal structures. The duration of spawning from ablation was the shortest in S. tranquebarica and the longest in S. olivacea. The study is relevant to aquaculture and fisheries management of Scylla species.
    • Book chapter

      Households, agriculture, industry, fishing, and fish farming along Imbang River, Negros Occidental 

      RC Sanares - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Interviews were conducted among respondents identified from the households, agriculture farms, sugar mills, and fish farms along the whole stretch of Imbang River, Malisbog River, and Muyao Creek, down to Barangay Balaring at the coast of Silay City in Negros Occidental. Among the 1,073 households, 11% used river water for washing clothes, but 20% also used the rivers for disposal of waste waters, 11% for human wastes, and 13% for animal wastes. Among the 30 respondents from the agriculture sector, 70% discharged water into the river. The two sugar mills in the area treated waste waters partially before release into the rivers; one sugar mill also released wastes in a nearby rice field. Milling wastes such as bagasse, molasses, and mud press were reused and not dumped into the river. Imbang River was both the water source and wastewater sink for seven fish farms.
    • Article

      Physiological and avoidance responses of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata to mercury 

      HM Monteclaro, RP Babaran, RC Sanares & ET Quinitio - Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation, 2014 - Bioflux
      The physiological and avoidance responses of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata to mercury was evaluated by determining mortality using a renewal-type acute toxicity test and assessing crabs’ ability to avoid toxic concentrations. The 96-h LC50 of mercury to juvenile mud crab was computed to be 0.04 mg L-1. When transferred to clean waters, crabs that survived exposure to concentrations lower than 0.04 mg L-1 had better chances of surviving than those that were exposed to higher mercury concentrations. Avoidance of juvenile mud crabs to mercury was determined using a fluvarium, which provided the crabs a choice between untreated and Hg-treated waters. Results showed that juvenile crabs were not able to avoid waters that contain 0.1 mg L-1 mercury, a concentration that was more than twice the 96-h LC50 value. Juveniles previously pre-exposed in 1/50th of the 96-h LC50 value had a higher avoidance threshold and were not able to avoid waters with 1 mg L-1 mercury. Results suggest that juvenile mud crab is unable to avoid waters containing lethal levels of mercury and this may have potential impacts on crab biomass, distribution, growth, and development.
    • Book chapter

      Water quality in Imbang river, Negros Occidental: effluents and pollutant loads from agriculture, sugar mills, households, and shrimp farms 

      GA Gonzales, HJ Gonzales, RC Sanares & ET Taberna - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      An ecological assessment of Imbang River in Negros Occidental was undertaken from December 1992 to February 1995. The effluents from sugar mills, households, shrimp farms, sugarcane plantations and rice fields were characterized and their pollutant loads estimated. Water quality and invertebrate assemblages were analyzed at several sites along the river to determine the environmental status. Results showed significant seasonal and site variations in water quality along Imbang River. The dry season, coinciding with the milling season, was the more critical time of the year as water quality tended to deteriorate. The segments of the river near the sugar mills and households had the poorest water quality. Sugar mill effluents had high water temperature (average 33oC but as high as 50oC), low dissolved oxygen, high total solids, the highest settleable solids (average 2.5 and as high as 17 m/l), and the highest biochemical oxygen demand (average 259 ppm but as high as 14,800 ppm BOD). Domestic effluents had low pH, high ammonia, very high BOD, plus detergents or surfactants and high levels of fecal coliform bacteria. Agricultural runoff had high nitrate, high total solids, and the highest total suspended solids (average 296 ppm but as high as 5,095 ppm TSS). Shrimp ponds used saline water of average 23 ppt, and had the highest total solids (average 23,456 ppm and as high as 57,400 ppm). By far the major contributor of pollutant loads into Imbang River was agriculture, due to its huge areal extent and huge volume of water use and run-off. Agricultural run-off carried the highest annual loads of 7,858 kg phosphate; 6,495 kg ammonia; 794 kg nitrite; 67,212 kg nitrate; 16,987 metric tons settleable solids; 16,800,000 mt total solids, and 11,890,000 mt total suspended solids; but only 297 mt BOD. Sugar mill effluents had the highest BOD load (1,583 mt/yr) and also had high nutrient loads. Household effluents contributed the second largest loads of solids next to agriculture, and also added surfactants (966 kg/yr) and fecal coliforms into the river. The six shrimp farms at the lower reaches of Imbang River were a minor contributor of pollutants into the river, annually adding about 891 kg ammonia; 1,077 kg phosphate; and 181,325 mt total solids.