Now showing items 1-10 of 10

    • Book

      Diseases of penaeid shrimps in the Philippines 

      MCL Baticados, ER Cruz-Lacierda, M de la Cruz, RC Duremdez-Fernandez, RQ Gacutan, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & GD Lio-po - 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 16
      The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps culture in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment.
    • Article

      Effect of rotenone and saponin on the shell quality of juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1993 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) juveniles were exposed to varying concentrations of rotenone and saponin to determine their effects on survival and shell quality. The highest concentrations tested, 50 ppm rotenone and 100 ppm saponin, were not lethal to shrimp. Shrimps exposed to 0.001 to 50 ppm rotenone had 7.4-66.6% shell softening while shrimps exposed to 0.001 to 100 ppm saponin had 2.66-66.6% shell softening. The shell softening rates were significantly higher in 1.0 to 50 ppm rotenone and 100 ppm saponin than in control shrimps.
    • Article

      Marine leech (Zeylanicobdella arugamensis) infestation in cultured orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, JD Toledo, JD Tan-Fermin & EM Burreson - Aquaculture, 2000 - Elsevier
      Heavy infestation of a marine leech occurred among tank-reared juvenile and adult orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides Hamilton, at SEAFDEC AQD, Philippines with a prevalence of 83% and 17%, respectively. The leeches were attached in large numbers on the fins, lower jaw, under the operculum, eyes, and inside the mouth of the fish. The attachment and feeding sites exhibited frayed fins, hemorrhages and swelling of the host's skin. External and internal features indicate that the leech is Zeylanicobdella arugamensis De Silva (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae). The parasite can be effectively controlled using 50 ppm formalin bath treatment for 1 h.
    • Article

      Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines 

      Y Maeno, LD de la Peña & ER Cruz-Lacierda - Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 2004 - Ministry of Tropical Agricultural Research Centre
      Viral nervous necrosis (VNN), also known as viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), is an emerging disease affecting larvae and juveniles of many farmed marine fish species in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Mass mortality occurred in 14-day old larval sea bass Lates calcarifer at a hatchery in the Philippines associated with clinical signs such as abnormal swimming behavior and pale-gray discoloration of the body. Histological investigations in moribund fish revealed marked vacuolation in the retina and brain. Cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected sea bass. A piscine nodavirus, the causative agent of VNN, was detected in the affected tissues and SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected fish by RT-PCR. Electron microscopy revealed non-enveloped viral particles, 22-28 nm in diameter, in the cytoplasm of the brain and retina of affected fish and in the cytoplasm of VNN-infected SSN-1 cells after CPE appeared. These results indicate that mass mortality of sea bass larvae in the Philippines was caused by a piscine nodavirus.
    • Article

      Mass mortality of hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) caused by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, Y Maeno, AJT Pineda & VE Matey - Aquaculture, 2004 - Elsevier
      Outbreaks of heavy infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum in hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) caused 100% mortality events in hatcheries in the Philippines. Parasites were recorded on the body surface in 14-day-old milkfish fry and on both skin and gills in 2-month-old snapper. Trophonts of A. ocellatum caused local erosions of fish skin and degeneration of epithelial cells at the sites of the parasite's attachment to the body surface. Separation and hyperplasia of gill epithelium and fusion of secondary lamellae at the distal parts of the gill filaments were common. High pathogenicity of A. ocellatum to fish may be attributed to the severe alterations of the fish gills, the disruption of the host's skin, and feeding of trophonts on hosts' epithelial cells. In-vivo treatments of A. ocellatum-infested snapper with a 1 h freshwater bath and 200 ppm H2O2 showed promising results. This is the first report of A. ocellatum infestation in milkfish and mangrove red snapper in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Nodavirus infection in hatchery-reared orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: First record of viral nervous necrosis in the Philippines 

      Y Maeno, LD de la Peña & ER Cruz-Lacierda - Fish Pathology, 2002 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Mass mortality occurred in 34-day old larval orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides reared at a hatchery in the Philippines with clinical signs such as anorexia and abnormal swimming behavior. Histopathology of moribund fish demonstrated marked vacuolation of the brain, spinal cord and retina. Cytopathic effects were observed in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected grouper. Electron microscopy revealed non-enveloped virus particles measuring 20 to 25 nm in diameter in the cytoplasm of degenerated SSN-1 cells. Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus), the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), was detected in the affected tissues and SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected fish by RT-PCR. This is the first record of VNN in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Occurrence and histopathogenesis of a didymozoid trematode (Gonapodasmius epinepheli) in pond-reared orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, RJG Lester, PS Eusebio, HS Marcial & SAG Pedrajas - Aquaculture, 2001 - Elsevier
      A didymozoid trematode encapsulated in the gills of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides Hamilton, was observed in October 1997 and September 1999 among pond-reared fish in the Philippines. Capsule prevalence was 33% and 18% and mean intensity 2 and 1, respectively. The opaque-white and yellowish capsules were found only on the first gill arch and were attached lengthwise along the posterior surface of the primary gill filaments. When the capsules were opened, long thread-like worms were revealed, which were identified as Gonapodasmius epinepheli Abdul-Salam, Sreelatha and Farah. The parasites were encapsulated between the basement membrane of the epithelium and the efferent artery of the gill filament. The response of the host included mild hyperplasia of the interlamellar epithelium and an increase in the number of mucous cells.
    • Conference paper

      Parasitic caligid copepods of farmed marine fishes in the Philippines 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, G Erazo-Pagador, A Yamamoto & K Nagasawa - In MG Bondad-Reantaso, JB Jones, F Corsin & A Takashi (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Taipei, Taiwan 20-26 June 2008, 2011 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Recently, heavy infestation of caligid copepods occurred among farmed rabbitfish Siganus guttatus, pompano Trachinotus blochii and sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines. In S. guttatus broodstock, Caligus epidemicus, Pseudocaligus uniartus and Lepeophtheirus sigani concurrently caused severe erosion and hemorrhaging of the body surface, fins and eyes of affected fish occurring at 95.78%, 1.52% and 0.70% of the parasite load, respectively, and with associated mortality of the host fish. In marketable-sized T. blochii, L. spinifer caused body lesions that considerably reduced the market value of harvested fish. In L. calcarifer juveniles, infestation with C. epidemicus resulted to loss of appetite, lethargy and stunted growth of affected fish. Because of its pathogenicity, low host specificity and tolerance to brackish water, C. epidemicus poses the highest threat to farmed marine fish in the Philippines. Lates calcarifer and T. blochii are new host records for C. epidemicus and L. spinifer, respectively. This is also the first record of L. spinifer in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) parasitic on marine cultured and wild fishes of the Philippines 

      Js Ho, IH Kim, ER Cruz-Lacierda & K Nagasawa - Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 2004 - The Fisheries Society of Taiwan
      Four species of sea lice were found parasitic on ten species of marine fishes either cultured in the coastal ponds or occurring in the sea water supply canals in the Philippines. They are: Caligus epidemicus Hewitt, 1971 on Acanthurus mata Cuvier), Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton), Glossogobius celebius (Valenciennes), Liza parmata (Cantor), Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskael), Monodactylus argenteus (Linnaeus), Oreochromis urolepis hornorum (Trewavas), Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus), and Siganus guttatus (Bloch); Caligus quadratus Shiino, 1954 on L. argentimaculatus and S. guttatus; Lepeophtheirus sigani n. sp. on S. guttatus; and Pseudocaligus uniartus n. sp. on S. guttatus and L. argentimaculatus. These ten species of fishes are new host to C. epidemicus, except for O. mossambicu which has been reported to carry C. epidemicus from Taiwan. Caligus quadratus is new to the Philippines and the two species of fish harboring it are the new host. While L. sigani was found only on S. guttatus, P. uniartus was recovered mostly from S. guttatus, and C. quadratus, largely from L. argentimaculatus. Caligus epidemicus exhibits extremely low host specificity and was found on all species of fishes examined.
    • Article

      Two Procamallanus spp. (Nematoda, Camallanidae) from fishes in the Philippines 

      F Moravec, ER Cruz-Lacierda & K Nagasawa - Acta Parasitologica, 2004 - Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Parasitology
      Nematode specimens of two Procamallanus species, P. (Procamallanus) planoratus Kulkarni, 1935 and P. (Spirocamallanus) guttatusi (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-Lopez et Garcia-Magana, 1994), were collected from broadhead catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Clariidae, Siluriformes) and orange-spotted spinefoot Siganus guttatus (Siganidae, Perciformes), respectively, from the Philippines. Their examination, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that was used for the first time in these species, made it possible to obtain new data on their morphology, to elucidate their systematic status, and to redescribe them. Procamallanus clarius Ali, 1957 and P. heteropneustus Ali, 1957 are considered junior synonyms of P. planoratus. Heavy P. guttatusi infections found in Siganus guttatus reared in Fish Hatchery of SEAFDEC AQD in Tigbauan, Iloilo indicate that this parasite may have negative implications on the health condition of fish in culture.