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    • Article

      Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet 

      MJS Apines-Amar, RM Coloso, CJ Jaspe, JM Salvilla, MNG Amar-Murillo & CA Saclauso - Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation, 2015 - Bioflux
      Feeding trials were conducted to determine the optimum partial replacement level of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented copra meal (FCM). Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% of the locally produced FCM partially replacing SBM protein by 0, 12, 27, 41, 56, and 71%, respectively and fully replacing copra meal were formulated. The diets were fed to the fish with an initial weight of 2.83±0.14 g for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the best diet was further tested in a preliminary feeding trial in brackishwater grow-out ponds to verify the performance of the formulated diet against a commercial milkfish feed in an outdoor grow-out system. The results of the indoor tank feeding trial indicated that weight gain of the fish was significantly better in the group fed diet 2, with 5% dietary FCM but further increase in the FCM inclusion level up to 20% of the diet did not exhibit statistical differences against the control. Moreover in the preliminary pond feeding trial, growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish fed the FCM diet were significantly higher than the commercial control diet. Survival and nutrient composition of the fish carcass were not adversely affected by the treatments. Hence, optimum dietary FCM inclusion level was determined at 5% of the milkfish diet replacing 100% copra meal and 12% SBM protein. However, in terms of economics, up to 20% FCM can be included in the diet replacing 56% SBM protein may be possible with growth comparable to the FCM-less control.
    • Article

      Utilization of mung bean, Vigna radiata (Linnaeus) as a novel protein source in practical-type diets for juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): Effects on growth, feed efficiency, body composition, and histology of gut and liver 

      MJS Apines-Amar, RM Coloso, MNG Amar, MSM Golez, MGB Bunda & CJ Jaspe - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2015 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      A 15-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum partial inclusion of mung bean protein in milkfish diet. Six isonitrogenous practical-type diets with mung bean included at 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, and 20% of the diet equivalent to 0%, 3%, 7%, 10%, 13%, and 17% of the total dietary protein, respectively, were formulated. Milkfish with average body weight (ABW) of 8.5 ± 0.23g were distributed in eighteen tanks (6 treatments X 3 replications) with 10 fish each. The fish were fed the diets three times daily. Results showed that growth of milkfish was not adversely affected by the inclusion of mung bean protein at any dietary level. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were significantly improved by the inclusion of mung bean at 20% of the diet. Nutrient compositions of the fish carcass were similar in all diets. Furthermore, no detrimental effects attributable to mung bean inclusion were seen in terms of protein retention, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and liver and midgut histology of the fish. Overall, mung bean is a promising protein source for milkfish and can be included up to 20% of the diet contributing as much as 17% of the total dietary protein without detrimental effects on growth, feed performance, PER, protein retention, HSI, and liver and intestinal histology.