Now showing items 1-8 of 8

    • Book chapter

      Environmental and other non-infectious diseases 

      GE Erazo-Pagador & RV Pakingking Jr. - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The chapter presents some of the environmental non-infectious diseases of aquatic animals. Non-infectious diseases are caused by adverse environmental conditions, nutritional disorders, or genetic defects. While they can result a sudden mass mortality or death, they are not contagious. Environmental diseases are the most important in aquaculture. This includes low dissolved oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite, or natural or man-made toxins in the aquatic environment.
    • Book chapter

      Environmental and other non-infectious diseases 

      GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The chapter presents some of the environmental non-infectious diseases of aquatic animals. Non-infectious diseases are caused by adverse environmental conditions, nutritional disorders, or genetic defects. While they can result a sudden mass mortality or death, they are not contagious. Environmental diseases are the most important in aquaculture. This includes low dissolved oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite, or natural or man-made toxins in the aquatic environment.
    • Book chapter

      Environmental diseases 

      GE Erazo-Pagador & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This chapter focuses on swimbladder stress syndrome and gas bubble disease, the two most common disorders due to adverse environmental conditions.
    • Growth and feed efficiency in mangrove red snapper, (Lutjanus argentimaculatus Forsskal 1775) fed practical diets supplemented with L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg 

      MR Catacutan, GE Pagador, E Doyola-Solis, S Teshima & M Ishikawa - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2011 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      Growth and feed efficiency were determined in red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775), fed diets containing L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (AMP). Fish (13.39±0.08 g) were fed a practical diet without vitamin C supplement for four weeks then stocked in twelve 650-l tanks at 30 fish/tank and fed one of four practical diets containing AMP at 0, 60, 180, or 540 mg/kg dry diet for 17 weeks. Survival rates in all treatments were similar (88.9-98.9%). Fish fed the 0 or 540 ppm diets had inferior final average weights, protein efficiency ratios, and feed conversion ratios than fish fed the 60 or 80 ppm diets (p<0.05). Growth of fish fed the 0 or 540 ppm diets slowed down on day 60 and fish fed the AMP-free diet exhibited clinical signs of vitamin C deficiency with a soft body and a significantly high (p<0.05) hepatosomatic index. Ascorbic acid in brain and liver tissues rose with the level of dietary AMP. Fish fed the 540 ppm diet had significantly lower hematocrit (p<0.05) than fish fed the 60 or 180 ppm diets. Histological analysis of the liver and kidney of fish fed the 180 and 540 ppm diets showed changes indicative of possible toxic effects. Based on growth, feed efficiency, tissue histology, and hematocrit level, AMP at 540 ppm is toxic to snapper. Thus, supplementation of 60 ppm AMP or its equivalent 26 ppm ascorbic acid in practical diets for red snapper promotes optimum growth and feed efficiency and prevents vitamin C deficiency symptoms.
    • Article

      Parasites from the green mussel (Perna viridis Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) of Ivisan, Capiz, Philippines 

      G Erazo-Pagador - Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2018 - College of Agriculture and Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      This study reports the parasites found in green mussel (Perna viridis L.) from Ivisan, Capiz, Philippines. Samples were collected monthly from January to December 2009. A total of 360 samples were collected, fixed in 10% formalin in seawater solution, and processed by standard histological techniques that included staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E). The water temperature ranged from 24 to 30°C and salinity from 18 to 23 ppt. Microscopic analysis showed that the most prevalent parasites were Nematopsis sp. occurring mostly in connective tissues (46%), metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. in the mantle (12%), and a turbellarian (4%) and metacercariae in the mantle (4%). Based on these findings, these parasites may not yet be a problem to mussel farming as they were low and caused no apparent damage to the host.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A wide variety of parasitic organisms have been reported as causing significant problems in grouper aquaculture. In the hatchery and nursery stages, parasitic diseases of groupers are caused predominantly by protozoans, particularly the ciliates. When grouper fry are transferred to grow-out facilities, they are subjected to handling and transport stress. These fish often carry a large variety and high intensity of ciliated protozoans, skin and gill monogeneans and caligid copepods.

      This chapter deals with the major parasites of cultured groupers including infections caused by protozoans, monogeneans, didymozoid digeneans, nematodes, caligid copepods, isopods and leeches.
    • Book chapter

      Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease prevention is a primary and cost-effective method in fish health management. It is more effective and economical than attempting to stop a disease that has already set in. Preventive measures have always big advantage over curative practices. Moreover, the drug may not provide remedies under all circumstances. Also, the drug may not help the host survive the infection until the environment is improved. Ideally, fish culturists should strive to decrease the stress-causing factors and eliminate and prevent the entry of pathogenic organisms by strictly adhering to the fish health monitoring programme.
    • Book chapter

      Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease prevention is primary and cost-effective method in fish health management. It is more effective and economical than attempting to stop a disease that has already set in the recommendations given above will greatly reduce the possibility of disease outbreak.