Now showing items 1-13 of 13

    • Conference paper

      Bacterial exoskeletal lesions of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. 

      GD Lio-Po & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, 17-22 April 1989, Tokyo, Japan, 1990 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Tank- and pond-reared Penaeus monodon with exoskeletal lesions were examined. The incidence rate was up to 36% for broodstock in concrete tanks and to 20% for pond-reared prawns. The increase in disease incidence was related to prawn age or duration of culture. Bacterial isolation yielded mostly Vibrio spp. Pathogenicity was tested on healthy P. monodon juveniles by a combination of injury and exposure to the test bacteria. Cumulative mortality was 60% within 72 hours in stabbed prawns and 20-40% after 96 hours for superficially-cut prawns. Growth of the bacteria in culture was active in 0.5-8% NaCl and at 12-40 degree C. In-vitro, test isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; and resistant to erythromycin, furanace, kanamycin and streptomycin.
    • Book chapter

      Chapter 1. Viral diseases 

      GD Lio-Po & LD de la Peña - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Some viral infections are serious diseases of groupers causing heavy mortalities. In most cases, larval stages are the most susceptible stage. With the carnivorous nature of groupers, they can readily ingest viral pathogens from live fish food or trash fish that carry the viral pathogens. Moreover, viruses are able to effect vertical transmission from broodstocks that are likely carriers of the virus. Survivors of viral epizootics can be carriers of viral pathogens.

      This chapter focuses on current information on the major viral infections of groupers, i.e., viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and viral infections attributed to the family Iridoviridae.
    • Book chapter

      Chapter 3. Fungal diseases 

      ES Catap & GD Lio-Po - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The incidence of ichthyophoniosis in groupers (Epinephelus) has been reported in Plectropomus sp. in Singapore and Cromileptes altivelis in Indonesia. It has also been known to infect at least 80 other species of teleost fish from marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats in both temperate and tropical regions (e.g., rainbow trout, yellowtail, mackerel, herring, flounder and cod). The etiologic agent of this disease is reportedly of uncertain taxonomic affinity but is often described as a fungus.
    • Conference paper

      Diseases of milkfish 

      G Lio-Po - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre
      Although the history of Chanos chanos culture has been quite long, reports of major epizootics have been few. Trained manpower and disease diagnostic services in most milkfish growing areas have not been readily available. Hence, earlier reports of etiologic agents of these epizootics were limited mostly to direct microscopic examination of specimens. Significant disease cases reported were attributed to bacterial, myotic, parasitic, and toxic causes. Bacterial infections, primarily due to Vibrio sp., have been frequently associated with mortality. To a lesser, extent fungal infections have also been reported. Intoxication of stock in freshwater systems by Microcystis toxins has caused massive fish kills in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. In most instances, affected fish were predisposed by environmental stress incurred in handling storage and transport. The fry and fingerling stages seemed severely affected compared with the older stages. Control of these infections must include assessment of fish husbandry practices first, before the use of chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics is considered.
    • Book

      Diseases of penaeid shrimps in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, GD Lio-Po, ER Cruz-Lacierda, EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual / SEAFDEC. Aquaculture Department; No. 16
      The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps cultured in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment. This revised edition includes newly discovered diseases. It is hoped that the manual will be of considerable help to shrimp farmers in identifying the disease and lead to prevention or early disease diagnosis and control.
    • Article

      Immuno-response in tilapia Sarotherodon niloticus vaccinated with Edwardsiella tarda by hyperosmotic infiltration method 

      G Lio-Po & H Wakabayashi - Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 1986 - Elsevier
      Sarotherodon niloticus with average weight of 28.42 ± 1.87g were immunized with formalin-killed Edwardsiella tarda using the hyperosmotic infiltration method. Test fish maintained in 30 l aquaria were grouped into four treatments. Group 1 and 2 were exposed to a single hyperosmotic treatment on day 0. Group 1 was bled on day 14 and group 2 was bled on day 28. Group 3 was given hyperosmotic treatments twice: on day 0 and day 14 and bled on day 28. Group 4 was an untreated control bled on day 28. All sera were analyzed for agglutinating antibody titer against E. tarda flagellar and somatic antigens. Results showed that flagellar and somatic agglutinin titers in all treatments were not statistically significant. Likewise, infection experiments where test fish were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of the test bacterium showed that the vaccination experiment did not effectively protect the test fish from infection by Edwardsiella tarda.
    • Book chapter

      Important diseases of Penaeid shrimps 

      GD Lio-Po & EM Leaño - In IC Liao, NH Chao & EM Leaño (Eds.), Progress of Shrimp and Prawn Aquaculture in the World, 2016 - National Taiwan Ocean University; The Fisheries Society of Taiwan; Asian Fisheries Society; World Aquaculture Society
      In tropical Asia, the two main species of penaeid shrimps that are widely cultured are the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei). The former species is indigenous in most Asian countries while the latter is indigenous in the Americas and was introduced to Asian countries in the late 1990s. In this chapter, only details of the economically-important microbial infections in Asia in these two penaeid shrimps are presented and arbitrarily grouped as viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases. Viral infections are divided further into two groups: DNA viruses; and, RNA viruses. The infections attributed to DNA viruses are: White Spot Disease (WSD) Disease, Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) previously known as Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) Disease, Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) formerly known as Hepatopancreatic Parvo-like Virus (HPV) Disease and Penaeus monodon nucleopoly-hedrovirus (PemoNPV) previously known as Monodon Baculovirus (MBV) Disease. The shrimp infections caused by RNA viruses are: Yellow Head Virus (YHV) Disease, Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Disease, and Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) Disease. For bacterial diseases, the list includes Luminous Bacterial Disease, Non-luminous Vibrio Infections, and Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND). Fungal disease includes Larval mycosis, while parasitic disease includes the current emerging threat to the shrimp industry, the Hepatopancreatic Microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).
    • Koi herpesvirus-associated mortalities in quarantined koi carp in the Philippines 

      JR Somga, LD de la Peña, CD Sombito, MG Paner, VS Suarnaba, GC Capulos, PI Santa Maria & GL Po - Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 2010 - European Association of Fish Pathologists
      Illegally imported koi carp were confiscated at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), Manila, Philippines by the Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Service Officers of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). The confiscated fish were turned over to the BFAR Fish Health Laboratory where they were held for observation at a water temperature of 28 degree C. After 5 days, some fish were showing abnormal swimming behavior and some had died. The most prominent disease signs in the freshly dead and moribund fish were body ulcerations and pale gills showing white necrotic patches, consistent with the clinical signs of KHV infection. Gills were dissected and fixed in 95% ethanol. All of the samples tested positive for KHV in a 1-step PCR assay.

      This paper reports the first case of KHV associated mortalities in illegally important koi carp confiscated by the Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Service Officers of BFAR. This highlights the importance of the quarantine and inspection service s role in preventing the illegal entry of fish into the country and the introduction of exotic aquatic diseases.
    • Book chapter

      Luminous Vibrio and the greenwater culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon with tilapia 

      GD Lio-Po - In PW Perschbacher & RR Stickney (Eds.), Tilapia in Intensive Co-culture, 2017 - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
      Luminous vibriosis is a devastating infection of penaeid shrimp larvae and juveniles causing heavy mortalities. To counter the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, shrimp farmers in the Philippines modified their growout culture method of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, juveniles and developed the greenwater culture technique. This culture method involves the use of pond water of all-male, saline-tolerant Oreochromis hornorum as rearing water for the culture of shrimp juveniles in ponds. Such a modified culture of P. monodon juveniles was found effective in preventing the onset of luminous vibriosis. Basic studies revealed that antiluminous Vibrio factors are inherent in the bacterial, fungal, and microalgal flora of the tilapia water, dermal mucus, and gut that singly or collectively inhibit the growth of V. harveyi, in vitro. The skin mucus studies of other brackishwater fish species showed that the siganids, Siganus guttatus, and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus), as well as sea bass, Lates calcarifer, are promising alternative fish species for this novel shrimp culture method. A review of pond-simulated studies in tanks and ponds, similarly, confirmed these findings and the impact of the greenwater culture technique on water quality, including its economic benefits to the farmer. The greenwater culture of shrimp can sustain the successful production of shrimp juveniles by inhibition of the luminous Vibrio. This culture method is also currently used in the growout culture of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
    • Book chapter

      Prawn health in aquaculture 

      G Lio-Po - In YN Chiu, LM Santos & RO Juliano (Eds.), Technical Considerations for the Management and Operation of Intensive Prawn Farms, 1988 - U.P. Aquaculture Society
      Disease management of intensively-cultured prawns requires an understanding of physiology and disease causation. Maladies result from an interaction of the prawn, disease agents and their environment. In intensive culture, the environment becomes increasingly difficult to control. Hence, surveillance for the early signs of disease, potential pathogens and the development of adverse environmental conditions should be integral components of a sound management system.
    • Article

      Tolerance of Penaeus monodon eggs and larvae to fungicides against Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros philippinensis 

      GD Lio-Po & EG Sanvictores - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      The in vivo effect of mycostatic levels of fungicides against the fungi Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros philippinensis was tested on Penaeus monodon eggs and larvae. Hatching rate and survival of nauplii, zoeae, myses and postlarvae exposed to 10 mg/l benzalkonium chloride, 1 mg/l Clotrimazole, 1 mg/l crystal violet, 10 mg/l 2,4-D, 10 mg/l Daconil, 20 mg/l laundry detergent, 1 mg/l Econazole nitrate, 10 mg/l Resiguard, 0.2 mg/l and 10 mg/l Treflan-R, and 0.01 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l trifluralin were monitored daily for 96 h in a static bioassay in glass aquaria. Test chemicals did not have an inhibitory effect on hatching rate but survival rate of hatched nauplii was significantly reduced in most treatments except those with 0.2 mg/l Treflan-R and 0.2 mg/l trifluralin. Tests with zoeae, myses and postlarvae indicated that 0.2 mg/l Treflan-R as well as 0.01 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l trifluralin did not adversely affect survival. In addition, application of 10 mg/l benzalkonium chloride caused no significant mortalities among exposed myses.
    • Article

      Vibrio sp. isolated from milkfish (Chanos chanos) with opaque eyes 

      K Muroga, GD Lio-Po, C Pitogo & R Imada - Fish Pathology, 1984 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Several milkfish (Chanos chanos) juveniles polycultured with the Indian prawn (Penaeus indicus) in earthen ponds at the Leganes Station of the Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Philippines, manifested eye abnormalities. Signs observed varied from unilateral and bilateral opaque eye coverings/eye balls, exophthalmia and hemorrhagic eyes. A vibrio was predominantly isolated from the opaque eye coverings and eye balls, and it was proved pathogenic to milkfish, Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and mouse by injection experiments. The opaqueness of eye coverings of milkfish was likewise reproduced by a combination of injury and contact with the pathogen.

      The bacterium, though seemingly closely related to Vibrio parahaemolyticus or V. alginolyticus, was not identified to any known Vibrio species.
    • Book chapter

      Viral diseases 

      GD Lio-Po - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Outbreaks of viral infections can cause massive mortalities among cultured fishes or shrimps. Water temperature and age of the fish or shrimps are significant factors that influence the development of viral infections. Most fish viral infections occur at low water temperatures, hence, very few viral infections among fishes in warm water culture systems are reported. In addition, most viral infections occur among fry or fingerlings often causing severe mortalities, while older fish or shrimp develop resistance or are hardly affected. Stress from handling, poor water quality, high stocking density and poor nutrition also affect the severity of viral infections. Finally, aquaculturists should beware in importing non-indigenous fish or shrimps into the country as these are potential carriers of viral pathogens.