Now showing items 1-12 of 12

    • Conference paper

      Acceptability of five species of freshwater algae to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry 

      JB Pantastico, JP Baldia & D Reyes Jr. - In CY Cho, CB Cowey & T Watanabe (Eds.), Finfish Nutrition in Asia : Methodological Approaches to Research and Development, 1985 - International Development Research Centre
      Unialgal cultures of Oscillatoria quadripunctulata, Chroococcus dispersus, Navicula notha, Euglena elongata, and Chlorella ellipsoidea were fed to tilapia fry for 30 days. Mean weights and survival rates of the fry were highest when given Navicula (105.6 mg, 86%) and Chroococcus (89.1 mg, 90%). Oscillatoria, a filamentous cyanophyte, showed limited acceptability to tilapia fry, possibly because of its larger size in comparison with Chroococcus. Fry fed Chlorella and Euglena did not survive at all.

      C14-labeled algae of the above species were fed to tilapia fry of varying ages. Assimilation rates per fry after 24 hours of feeding with a suitable algal species increased with the age of the fry. Moreover, the same trend as in the growth and survival experiments was observed, i.e., the highest assimilation rates were obtained in 40-day old tilapia fry given Navicula and Chroococcus as natural feeds. On the other hand, negligible amounts of the other three algal species tested were assimilated by tilapia fry.

      The above results were explained in terms of the enzyme secretion of tilapias. There seemed to be no transition stage in the feeding habit of both fry and adult tilapia. The acceptability of plant matter in the diet of even the early larval stages was demonstrated.
    • Article

      Acclimation of Penaeus monodon postlarvae to fresh water 

      JB Pantastico & EN Oliveros - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1980 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Gradual acclimation of Penaeus monodon Fabricius to fresh water was conducted in glass aquaria and marine plywood tanks over a one-day, two-day, and three-day acclimation periods. Different stages of postlarvae were tested for their hardiness to acclimation. P35 postlarvae had a high percent survival of 98-99% while lower values were obtained for P20 and P90. A three-day acclimation period was favorable for all ages of postlarvae. Shorter durations of acclimation produced survival values as low as 20% This stress effect was apparent with P20 and P90 but not with P35 which showed high survival regardless of the length of acclimation.
    • Conference paper

      Algal production and utilization relevant to aquaculture in the Philippines 

      JB Pantastico, JP Baldia, CC Espegadera & DM Reyes Jr. - In IJ Dogma Jr., GC Trono Jr. & RA Tabbada (Eds.), Culture and use of algae in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Symposium on Culture and Utilization of Algae in Southeast Asia, 8-11 December 1981, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An outline is given of research conducted at the Aquaculture Department of SEAFDEC at Rizal, Philippines regarding algal culture and utilization. Culture methods for both brackishwater and freshwater algae are described and details given of applications of microalgae in the aquaculture industry, which include feed for fish and shrimp larvae.
    • Article

      An assessment of algal growth in net cages in Laguna Lake 

      JB Pantastico & JP Baldia - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1981 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Quantitative determination of the algal population, in terms of cells/ml and biomass/ml, was conducted during the first month of growing P. monodon postlarvae in Laguna Lake. Algae were sampled from each side of net cages at depths of 15, 30 and 45 cm below the water surface. Accumulation of algae appeared to be influenced by the direction of water flow. Moreover, growth of algal species was inversely proportional to depth of water. After two weeks, algal biomass was estimated to reach 4.5 kg per cage (1 x 1 x 1 m).

      Diatoms (Chrysophyta) predominated throughout the experimental period followed by members of Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta.
    • Conference paper

      Cannibalism among different sizes of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry/fingerlings and the effect of natural food 

      JB Pantastico, MMA Dangilan & RV Eguia - In RSV Pullin, T Bhukaswan, K Tonguthai & JL Maclean (Eds.), The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, 1988 - Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand; International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines
      Experiments were conducted in jars, tanks and aquaria to determine the occurrence of cannibalism among 7 different size groups of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ) fry and fingerlings. Cannibalism became more intense as the size difference increased. Big fry were less susceptible to cannabalism than small fry. On the other hand, bigger fingerlings were highly cannabalistic compared with smaller ones. This was evident as early as the first 10 minutes after stocking when fingerlings which usually stayed at the bottom moved swiftly towards the surface and swallowed the smaller fry.

      Availability of additional natural food in the growing medium affected survival of fry (mean weight = 9.3 mg) which were stocked with fingerlings (mean weight = 163.5 mg) in aquaria. Feeding with Spirulina proved more effective in reducing cannibalism than feeding with Navicula . After 5 days of rearing, fry survival was highest when fed with Spirulina (83.1%) followed by Navicula (16.6%) and the unfed control (5.6%).
    • Conference paper

      Efficiency of some cyanophytes as larval feed for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the culture of Spirulina platensis 

      JB Pantastico, SF Baldia & JP Baldia - In JL Maclean, LB Dizon & LV Hosillos (Eds.), The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-31 May 1986, Manila, Philippines, 1986 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Six-day old carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitix) fry (mean weight 3 mg) were stocked at 5/l in aquaria. These were fed with unialgal cultures of three species of blue-green algae, namely: Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria quadripunctulata and Spirulina platensis. Best increase in weight was obtained when feeding consisted of Spirulina followed by those fed with Oscillatoria. Poor results were obtained when fry were fed solely with Anabaena. Weight gain was highest during the first two weeks with Spirulina as feed. On the other hand, survival of fry was higher (68%) with Oscillatoria than with Spirulina (54%). Proximate analysis of fish and algae were conducted. Spirulina seemed to be the most promising live food organism for larval rearing of silver carp. Thus, laboratory culture of the cyanophyte at different pH (9, 10 and 11) and two types of media (hog manure and urea) were investigated. Algal biomass production in a semi-continuous, outdoor tank system was also determined.
    • Article

      Feed preference of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) fry given different algal species as natural feed 

      JB Pantastico, JP Baldia & DM Reyes Jr. - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Acclimated milkfish fry (mean wet weight, 6.0 mg) were fed with unialgal cultures of five species of freshwater algae: Oscillatoria quadripunctulata, Chroococcus dispersus, Navicula notha, Euglena elongata and Chlorella ellipsoidea. In the first experiment, the filamentous blue-green alga, Oscillatoria, appeared most acceptable to milkfish fry throughout the growing period, while feeding milkfish fry with the unicellular species, Chroococcus, resulted in lower weights and survival. In the second experiment, increases in weight of milkfish fry fed with Oscillatoria alone or in combination with Chroococcus were comparable. However, a significant increase in survival was obtained with the combination feeding. A third experiment showed that high density cultures of Oscillatoria resulted in significantly large weight increments in all growth stages. The other algae tested did not support growth of milkfish fry.

      14C-Labeled algae of the same species were fed to milkfish fry. Significantly high assimilation retes were observed in almost all growth stages of milkfish fry with Oscillatoria alone or Chroococcus alone. Negligible amounts of Navicula, Chlorella and Euglena were assimilated.
    • Conference paper

      Finfish nutrition in Asia: a review. 

      JB Pantastico - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition, 25-26 February 1985, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development
      This review paper highlights counry reports presented at the Workshop on Asian Finfish Nutrition Sponsored by the International Development Research Center of Canada in 1983. Result of researches on the amino acid, lipid, mineral and vitamin requirements of some cultured finfishes in the larval, juvenile and broodstock stages are discussed.

      Complete essential amino acid requirements have been determined for common carp; only three have been qualified for tilapia. Many researches were conducted to replace trash fish and fish meal as protein source in fish diet. For O. niloticus, soybean meal can replace 50% of the fish meal in the grow-out diet.

      Essential fatty acids influence the dietary value of live food organisms for fish larvae. Rotifers cultured with yeast were low in W3 highly unsaturated fatty acids while those grown in Chlorella were high in 20: 5W3. Similarly, "lablab" showed higher W3/W6 ratio than "lumut".

      On the other hand, chemical, and Artemia from two sources showed that mineral is not the principal factor in the dietary value of natural feeds.

      Over-all, fundamental knowledge on the nutritional requirements of finfishes in the region is lacking.
    • Article

      Fry-to-fingerling production of Tilapia nilotica in aquaria using phytoplankton as natural feed 

      JB Pantastico, C Espegadera & D Reyes - Kalikasan, The Journal of Philippine Biology, 1982 - University of the Philippines at Los Baños
      Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of phytoplankton as natural feed in fry-to-fingerling production of Tilapia nilotica . In the first experiment, growth and survival rates of fry given a sustained supply of algae increased considerably over the control fed with rice bran. In the second experiment, T. nilotica were grown in "green" water with phytoplankton concentrations adjusted to the following densities (cells/ml): high, 150-175 x 10 super(3); moderate, 90-120 x 10 super(3); and low, 50-60 x 10 super(3). Increasing the algal densities in the rearing medium enhanced growth of fry. Highest weight increments were obtained with high and moderate phytoplankton concentrations.
    • Article

      Isolation and cultivation of Anabaena sp. from organic media after sterilization 

      JB Pantastico, JP Baldia, SF Baldia, DM Reyes Jr. & AC Gonzal - Philippine Agriculturist, 1986 - University of the Philippines at Los Baños
      A species of Anabaena was isolated from the fronds of Azolla pinnata by combining the chopped fronds of the Azolla extract with either lake water or an organic medium (duck manure alone or combined with banana stalk) and sterilizing at 121°C and 15 psi for 20 min. Growth of Anabaena sp. was observed within 33 to 37 days and compared with the morphology of A. azollae squeezed from the fronds of Azolla pinnata. Results were discussed regarding the high temperature tolerance of the recently isolated Anabaena sp. Anabaena sp. was incubated in synthetic sponge carriers and grown in different media. The total nitrogen contributions of Anabaena sp. in lake water and in nitrogen-free inorganic medium was 22.3 and 13.2 mg/l respectively after 60 days.
    • Article

      Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds 

      CB Santiago, JB Pantastico, SF Baldia & OS Reyes - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      Milkfish fry were reared to fingerling size in freshwater ponds. For the first experiment, fish were fed the blue-green algae Oscillatoria inoculated and grown in the ponds, Oscillatoria supplemented with a fishmeal-based formulated diet, and the formulated diet alone. Twelve 50-m2 earthen ponds were prepared to enhance growth of the indigenous natural foods. Acclimated wild milkfish fry were stocked randomly at 90/m2 and were fed for 6 weeks. Milkfish fed the formulated diet alone had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean weight gain (1.314±0.201 g) than milkfish given the combination of Oscillatoria and formulated diet (0.882±0.230 g). Growth was lowest for fish fed Oscillatoria alone. The feeding treatments in the second experiment were: combination of Spirulina powder and formulated diet, formulated diet alone, and rice bran alone. The stocking rate was equivalent to 91.5–92.5 fry/m2 and feeding lasted for 7 weeks. All feeds promoted some growth but the milkfish fed the formulated diet alone invariably had the highest weight increment (1.504±0.167 g), followed by fish given the feed combination (0.881±0.140 g). Rice bran alone gave the lowest growth response. For both pond experiments, growth trends of the young milkfish were similar to those grown under laboratory conditions. Although survival rates were significantly different in one aquarium experiment, survival rates of milkfish in ponds did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatments.
    • Article

      Tilapia (T. nilotica) and Azolla (A. pinnata) cage farming in Laguna Lake 

      JB Pantastico, SF Baldia & DM Reyes Jr. - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1986 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Four batches of Azolla were grown in cages in Laguna lake between 1981 to 1983. Percent increase in weight per day ranged from 35% (Feb. 24 - March 2, 1981) to 5% (May 8 - May 12, 1983.) Best growth was attained during the cold months.

      Acceptability of Azolla as supplemental feed for tilapia was determined in four experiments conducted between 1981-1984. The stocking densities varied in the four experiments: 25/m2, 50/m2, 100/m2 and 150/m2. All the results showed increase in mean weight of tilapia fed with fresh Azolla over the unfed control. Statistical analysis showed significantly high (p<0.05) mean weights of tilapia fed with Azolla in two experiments only.