Now showing items 1-20 of 28

    • Article

      Advancement of sexual maturation and spawning of sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), using pelleted luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue and 17α-methyltestosterone. 

      LMB Garcia - Aquaculture, 1990 - Elsevier
      The ability of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt)LHRH], 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), and their combination to advance gonadal maturation and spawning in captive sea bass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) broodstock was tested. Several hormonal therapies were tested including monthly implantations of a low dose (100 μg/kg body weight) of each hormone and a high dose (200 μg/kg) implanted to sexually-quiescent sea bass at 45-day intervals. A high dose of LHRHa alone or in combination with MT induced a significant number of mature females (43–71%) in April, 45 days after a single implantation in early March. A lower dose of pelleted LHRHa and LHRHa plus MT was found effective (78–80%) only in May following three monthly implantations. Two and three monthly implantations of a low dose of MT failed to stimulate oocyte growth in April and May whereas a less frequent mode of application of a high dose of the androgen inhibited ovarian growth in April only. A low dose of MT alone significantly increased the number of mature males in April (90%) and May (100%) after two and three monthly implantations. All male sea bass which received three monthly implantations of a low dose of LHRHa and LHRHa plus MT were sexually mature in May. Sexually mature sea bass obtained from these experiments spawned in early May after a single intramuscular injection of LHRHa. These results demonstrate the potential use of pelleted LHRHa and MT to significantly advance gonadal development and spawning in sea bass earlier than the annual breeding season.
    • Article

      A collecting gear for naturally-spawned milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) eggs in circular floating net cages 

      LMB Garcia, CL Marte & VS Travina - Aquaculture, 1988 - Elsevier
      A collecting gear for naturally-spawned milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) eggs in circular floating net cages is described. The gear has been shown to be effective in collecting large numbers of eggs. The collecting gear can be adopted for other broodstock fish species held in circular floating net cages.
    • Article

      Critical factors influencing survival and hatching of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) eggs during simulated transport 

      LMB Garcia & JD Toledo - Aquaculture, 1988 - Elsevier
      The effects of loading density, length of transit time, temperature and salinity on milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) eggs during simulated transport were examined. Rocking motion approximating conditions of transport of eggs collected from milkfish broodstock floating net cages to a hatchery was simulated using a laboratory orbit shaker. Loading densities of more than 7000 eggs/l in shipping bags resulted in decreased rates of survival and correspondingly lower hatching rates. Prolonged shaking simulating extended periods of egg transport also resulted in low egg survival and hatching rates compared to fertilized eggs not subjected to simulated transport. Egg survival after simulated transport at 20°C was lower than at 28°C, except at 20 ppt salinity, where survival was equal. Egg survival at 20°C progressively increased with declining salinity levels whereas high egg survival rates were observed after 2 h of simulated egg transport at 28°C and at the three salinities tested. Hatching rates of fertilized eggs after simulated transport were higher at 28°C than at 20°C regardless of salinity. Neither salinity nor its interaction with temperature affected hatching rates of eggs after simulated transport. These results indicate that survival and hatching of fertilized milkfish eggs after simulated transport is influenced by loading density, transport time, temperature and, to some degree, the salinity of the water. Based on these results, guidelines for handling and transporting milkfish eggs are given.
    • Article

      Culturing seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in illuminated cages with supplementary Acetes feeding 

      LMB Garcia, GV Hilomen-Garcia & RLM Calibara - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2010 - The Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      Juvenile Hippocampus barbouri were grown in illuminated cages with or without supplemental daytime feeding of thawed Acetes (a planktonic marine crustacean), or in non-illuminated cages with Acetes feeding, as a supplement to light-attracted zooplankton prey. After ten weeks, seahorses in illuminated cages fed Acetes had the highest mean body weight (2.24 g) and length (8.20 cm), but these did not significantly differ from seahorses in unfed illuminated cages (1.88 g; 7.25 cm), which did not significantly differ from those in fed non-illuminated cages (0.88 g; 6.32 cm). In all treatments, the mean instantaneous growth rate in body weight declined progressively throughout the test but the instantaneous growth rate in stretched length did not vary. Mean survival (76-100%) of seahorses in fed non-illuminated cages and in unfed illuminated cages did not vary significantly over the test period. The mean survival of seahorses in fed illuminated cages was lowest (54%), but did not significantly differ from the other treatments. Juvenile H. barbouri grown in illuminated cages had better growth than those in non-illuminated cages, but survival was reduced when seahorses in illuminated cages were fed Acetes.
    • Article

      Development of an ovarian biopsy technique in the sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). 

      LMB Garcia - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      A convenient and rapid biopsy method for taking ovarian samples from mature sea bass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) is described. Intra-ovarian oocytes siphoned with polyethylene tubing from any region of the ovary provide a sample representative of the maturational stage of sea bass. The osmolality of a 5% phosphate buffered formalin solution is similar to that of sea bass plasma. The follicular diameter of cannulated sea bass oocytes can be measured within an hour after fixation in 5% phosphate buffered formalin without significantly deviating from the diameter of fresh oocytes.
    • Article

      Diet composition and feeding periodicity of the seahorse Hippocampus barbouri reared in illuminated sea cages 

      LMB Garcia, GV Hilomen-Garcia, FT Celino, TT Gonzales & RJ Maliao - Aquaculture, 2012 - Elsevier
      The zooplankton prey composition and feeding periodicity of juvenile and adult seahorses Hippocampus barbouri reared in illuminated and non-illuminated sea cages were compared. Mean frequency of occurrence (%FO), prey composition (%N), and gut fullness of seahorses were calculated from analyses of gut contents. Compared with juvenile seahorses, adults consumed more variety of prey consisting of copepods, larvae of decapods, polychaetes and fish, and euphausid shrimps. Calanoid copedods were found in the gut of more juvenile (%FO = 47) and adult (%FO = 64) seahorses in illuminated cages but harpacticoid copepods were ingested by more juvenile fish (%FO = 50) in non-illuminated cages. Decapod larvae (%N = 66) in illuminated cages dominated the diet of juvenile seahorses, whereas in non-illuminated cages harpacticoid copepods (%N = 59) did. Calanoid copepods and decapod larvae (%N = 91–97) comprised the bulk of ingested prey among adult seahorses in all experimental cages. The gut of caged seahorses was generally full during daytime but declined in the evening, becoming almost empty at midnight, particularly among juveniles. Cage illumination commencing at midnight increased the number of filled guts at dawn (0400 h) among juvenile and adult seahorses. Unlike adult seahorses over a 24-h period, the overall incidence of filled guts among juveniles was not different between those in non-illuminated and illuminated cages. These results provide an alternative to growing caged H. barbouri on cultured live food, particularly copepods attracted by night illumination.
    • Article

      Diet composition, feed preferences and mouth morphology of early stage silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks 

      FA Aya, MNC Corpuz & LMB Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2015 - Wiley
      This study examined the diet composition, feeding preferences, and mouth morphology of the silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864) larvae under captive conditions. Larvae were reared in outdoor tanks (4 m3) with natural food grown 2 weeks prior to start of larval rearing. Food preference was measured by the Chesson's electivity index (αi). Gut content analysis of larvae sampled between 5 and 25 days after hatching (DAH) showed the dominance in the diet by zooplankton, mainly copepod nauplii, cladocerans and insect larvae. Small fish larvae (5–9 DAH; 3.32–6.29 mm standard length) preferred cladocerans, ciliates and copepod nauplii; whereas older larvae (12–25 DAH; 5.45–19.26 mm standard length) preferred insect larvae over cladocerans and adult insects. The mouth gape size at 5 DAH was 359 μm and increased to 3.75 mm at 40 DAH when body size grew at an average rate of 0.59 mm d−1. The standard length (SL) of L. plumbeus larvae was strongly associated with mouth size (r2 = 0.98, P < 0.05), indicating a progressive increase of ingested prey size of the fish larvae. These results clarified the early life feeding ecology of this species, which is essential in developing effective hatchery techniques.
    • Article

      Dose-dependent spawning response of mature female sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), to pelleted luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) 

      LMB Garcia - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      The induction of sequential spawnings of mature female sea bass following intraperitoneal implantation of various doses of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) in a 95% cholesterol pellet was investigated. LHRHa stimulated a dose-dependent increase in spawning rate (number of spawnings per fish over a 4-day period) at doses ranging from 4.75 to 75 μg/kg body weight. Higher doses ranging from 150 to 300 μg/kg resulted in significantly fewer spawnings (62.5%–75%). Untreated control sea bass did not spawn. Sham-implanted fish failed to spawn or did so at significantly lower rates (0%–6.3%) compared to hormone-treated fish.

      Spawning induction at the highest hormone dose tested (300 μg/kg) resulted in the lowest mean egg fertilization rate of 30.1%. Mean fertilization rates, ranging from 60.5% to 82.2%, at the lower doses of LHRHa were not significantly different. Mean hatching rates ranging from 30% to 76.5% following induction of sequential spawning by several doses of LHRHa were similar. At all hormone doses tested, mean egg production levels of 37.3–58.7×104 eggs/kg body weight were highest on the first day of spawning and declined significantly on subsequent days. Mean egg production levels of 1.2–6.9×104 eggs/kg were always lowest on the last day of spawning. Similar egg production levels among all hormone doses during each spawning day were observed. These results indicate that the quality and quantity of spawned eggs may, in part, be influenced by sequential spawnings triggered by LHRHa pellet implantation in sea bass.
    • Article

      Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and handling stress on spermiation of silver perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) 

      PJT Denusta, EGT de Jesus-Ayson, MA Laron & LMB Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2014 - Wiley
      This study determined the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and handling stress on the spermiation and milt response of silver perch Leiopotherapon plumbeus based on the measurement of spermatocrit, sperm density, and milt production. Compared to saline-injected fish, the mean spermatocrit (or packed sperm) of hCG-treated fish was significantly lower at 18 h (47.9%) and 30 h (40.2%) post-injection while mean sperm density was significantly lower at 30 h post-injection (3.6 × 106 cells μl−1) but not at 18 h. At 18 h (1.8 μl g-BW−1) and 30 h (2.5 μl g-BW−1) post-injection, mean milt production of hCG-treated fish was significantly higher than in the saline group. Milt consistency was also thinner in the hCG-treated group. Mean sperm density of handled fish (18.0 × 106 cells μl−1) was significantly lower than control fish (23.4 × 106 cells μl−1). However, mean sperm density of handled plus saline-injected (16.2 × 106 cells μl−1) and handled plus hCG-treated fish (8.4 × 106 cells μl−1) was significantly lower than in the control goup. Having thicker milt consistency, mean spermatocrit and milt production of handled (77.5%; 1.1 μl g-BW−1, respectively) and handled plus saline-injected fish (75.4%; 1.1 μl g-BW−1, respectively) were not significantly different from the control fish (76.2%; 1.3 μl g-BW−1, respectively). Handled plus hCG-treated fish had the lowest mean sperm density (8.4 × 106 cells μl−1) and spermatocrit (54.7%), but had the highest mean milt production (5.5 μl g-BW−1) among the treatment groups. These results demonstrate that the hCG injection effectively induces spermiation and milt expression and that handling-related stress negatively affects such responses. The spermatocrit method may be used to assess the spermiation and milt response of silver perch.
    • Article

      Embryonic and larval development of hatchery-reared silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Perciformes: Terapontidae) 

      FA Aya, VSN Nillasca, LMB Garcia & Y Takagi - Ichthyological Research, 2016 - Springer Verlag
      The embryonic and larval development of hatchery-reared silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus are described to provide essential information on the early life history of this species. Egg size, larval size at hatching, yolk resorption rate, onset of feeding and development of some morphological characters were examined. Fertilized eggs (430–610 µm in diameter) were spherical, yellowish, demersal and slightly adhesive. First cleavage occurred 6 min post-fertilization and embryos hatched 21–24 h post-fertilization under ambient temperature of 27.5 ± 0.1 °C. Newly hatched larvae [1.79 ± 0.04 mm in total length (TL)] with yolk volume of 0.579 ± 0.126 mm3 had no functional or pigmented eyes, mouth or digestive tract. The eyes became fully pigmented and mouth opened [31 and 36.5 hours post-hatching (hph)] shortly before yolk resorption at 39 hph and when larvae had grown to 2.65 ± 0.14 mm in TL. Some morphological characters such as total length, pre-anal length and eye diameter decreased following yolk resorption, which also coincided with the development of foraging capacities shortly before exogenous feeding was initiated. L. plumbeus larvae initiated exogenous feeding at 54 hph, indicating a short (15 h after yolk resorption) transitional feeding period. Larval growth at the early stages of development (54–72 hph) was rapid and steadily increased from 288 to 720 hph, when larvae, 12.05 ± 4.02 mm in TL, closely resembled the external characteristics of their adult conspecifics.
    • Conference paper

      Fisheries biology of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) 

      LMB Garcia - In H Tanaka, KR Uwate, JV Juario, CS Lee & R Foscarini (Eds.), Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Milkfish Culture Development in the South Pacific, 21-25 November 1988, Tarawa, Kiribati, 1990 - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, South Pacific Aquaculture Development Project
      Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) is one of the most important food fish species in the world. In Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines, more than a quarter of a million tonnes of milkfish are harvested annually in brackish ponds, contributing roughly 60% of the total fish production from aquaculture in Southeast Asia. This tremendous level of production from a single fish commodity is projected to further increase in the coming years to meet the dietary protein needs of an ever-growing population in Southeast Asia. To address vital research gaps afflicting the milkfish industry, research has correspondingly intensified over the past 15 years particularly in the Philippines, Taiwan and Hawaii. Results of such research projects have widespread application not only among Southeast Asian nations but also among many untapped areas in the Pacific, the Middle East, Africa and Central America where milkfish culture is feasible.

      A sound approach to initiate a milkfish aquaculture project is to have an adequate knowledge of the basic biology of this species. Several researchers have presented in great technical detail some of these biological aspects at numerous symposia (Juario et al., 1984, Lee, Gordon and Watanabe, 1986). This paper will therefore summarize in moderate detail some recent additional information on several aspects of milkfish biology: taxonomy, distribution, life history and habitat, food and feeding habits, growth, reproduction and tolerance to environmental conditions. Aside from increasing our understanding of milkfish, it is hoped that this short review will goad others to undertake further scientific research on many unknown aspects of the species, thus contributing to both the quality and the quantity of milkfish served on our dinner tables.
    • Article

      Grow-out of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker; Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in illuminated sea cages 

      LMB Garcia & GV Hilomen-Garcia - Aquaculture Research, 2009 - Blackwell Publishing
      This paper examines the feasibility of rearing 10–15-day- and 0.7–1.5-month-old seahorse Hippocampus kuda in illuminated sea cages to continue existing hatchery protocols to mass produce H. kuda for trade and enhance depleted wild stocks in their natural habitats. Thawed Acetes (a planktonic crustacean abundant in inshore seas) was fed to juvenile seahorses in lighted and unlighted sea cages while one group in lighted cages was not fed Acetes. After 10–12 weeks of rearing, both mean body weight and stretch height increased in all treatment groups, with lighted cage-reared seahorses fed Acetes being heavier (2 g) and longer (8 cm) than the other two treatment groups. Although instantaneous growth rates declined during the rearing period, these were generally higher among Acetes-fed seahorses in lighted cages (0.02–0.07) compared with those in the unlighted cages with Acetes and lighted cages without Acetes feeding. Mean survivorship in all groups ranged from 9% to 74% after the trials, but mean survivorship of juveniles in lighted cages with Acetes feeding (9–74%) was consistently lower than the two treatment groups as a likely result of crustacean and piscine predators being attracted by light and the odour of leftover Acetes in the lighted cages. These results demonstrate that light-attracted zooplankton prey supplemented by Acetes feeding may provide essential nutrients for the growth of H. kuda juveniles in illuminated sea cages. With further improvement in the grow-out protocol, it may provide a possible alternative livelihood to seahorse fishers and sufficient seed to re-populate depleted wild stocks of H. kuda.
    • Article

      Improved survival, prey selectivity and diel feeding cycle of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Perciformes: Terapontidae) larvae reared in tanks with substrate 

      FA Aya, VSN Nillasca, MJP Sayco & LMB Garcia - Ichthyological Research, 2018 - Springer Verlag
      Physical substrates in the rearing environment can influence the early survival and feeding patterns of captive-reared fish. In this study, we determined whether substrates affect the survival and growth of hatchery-reared silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus larvae as well as examined their prey selectivity and diel feeding cycle. Newly hatched larvae [1.92 mm total length (TL)] were reared for 40 days in triplicate 4 m3 tanks with or without tropical almond Terminalia catappa leaves as substrate. Prey selectivity of larvae reared in tanks with substrate for 35 days from the yolk-sac stage was measured by the Chesson’s selectivity index (?i). Diel feeding cycle of 3-4 days post-hatch (dph) silver therapon larvae reared in tanks exposed to natural light cycle and fed wild zooplankton was also studied. Larvae reared in tanks with substrate had significantly higher survivorship (48.44?±?7.85%) than those reared in tanks without substrate (26.73?±?1.60%). However, total length, specific growth rate and body weight of silver therapon larvae from tanks with or without substrate were not significantly different. Silver therapon larvae are generalist predator, demonstrating a degree of prey selectivity in some prey items during early ontogeny. Prey selectivity of silver therapon larvae varied during larval ontogeny, with higher Chesson’s selectivity index for copepod nauplii among the smaller fish larvae (2–5 dph; 2.94–5.17 mm TL), cladocerans (Moina micrura and Bosmina coregoni) among intermediate (6–11 dph; 5.72–9.60 mm TL), and ostracod, cladoceran and insect larvae among larger fish (12–35 dph; 10.28–20.96 mm TL). Larvae showed a diel feeding cycle where they actively fed during daylight hours, with a peak in the late afternoon, and reached a minimum at dark. Together, these findings advance our understanding of the feeding predatory behavior and efficiency of silver therapon larvae and preference for tanks with substrate that improve their survival.
    • Article

      Induction of sex inversion in juvenile grouper, Epinephelus suillus, (Valenciennes) by injections of 17α-Methyltestosterone 

      JD Tan-Fermin, LMB Garcia & AR Castillo Jr. - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994 - The Ichthyological Society of Japan
      Four groups of two-year old juvenile groupers (Epinephelus suillus), each with 8-9 individuals of mean body weight (BW) 1.2 kg, were treated with 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). MT was injected intramuscularly within the range of 0.5-5.0 mg kg-1 BW every 15 days. Gonadal biopsy and stripping of the abdomen was done every 15 days, the fish being sacrificed after six or twelve injections. Initial controls had immature ovaries containing primary oocytes in lamellae that extended into the central lumen. After six injections, proliferation of stromal and gonial cells were observed in all fish sampled. Regardless of treatment, gonad sections of fish with a minimum BW of 1.2 kg showed degeneration of primary oocytes and the presence of spermatogenic cells. Milt was also present in larger-sized fish (BW: 1.5 kg) given 0, 0.5 and 1.0mg MTkg-1 BW, after such fish had received an accumulated dose of 5 or 12mg MTkg-1 BW. However, gonad sections of smaller-sized fish following these treatments contained only primary oocytes and gonial cells after six (BW: 0.7-1.0kg) or twelve (BW: 0.6-1.3 kg) injections. In contrast, all fish treated with 5 mg MT kg-1 BW had testes in active spermatogenesis after six (BW: 1.2-1.6 kg) or twelve (BW: 0.8 kg) injections. Gonad weight and gonadosomatic index values decreased during consecutive sampling. Induction of female-to-male sex inversion in juvenile E. suillus by MT was probably synergistic with age and size.
    • Article

      An inexpensive tag for short-term studies in milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) and in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) 

      LMB Garcia & RSJ Gapasin - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1988 - Blackwell Publishing
      An opercular tag for marking adult milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) and seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) is described. High tag retention and relatively low mortality rates were observed in adult fish handled two to ten times during 14-to 60-day tests. The features and advantages of the tag for marking large-sized fish in short-term studies are discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Larval rearing of silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus) in outdoor tanks 

      FA Aya, VSN Nillasca, MNC Corpuz & LMB Garcia - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864), locally known as ayungin, is an important freshwater food fish species found in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines. Its market price is twice that of other most sought after freshwater fishes such as tilapia and milkfish. However, intense fishing pressure on the species has significantly reduced the wild stock in Laguna de Bay. Studies to develop hatchery techniques for this indigenous freshwater fish species are therefore needed to produce seedstock for possible culture and wild stock rehabilitation.

      This study highlights the successful larval rearing of silver therapon in outdoor concrete tanks. Larvae reared in outdoor tanks with natural food (grown two weeks beforehand) reached the juvenile stage (40 days after hatching (DAH)), suggesting the presence of some suitable live food organisms in pre-conditioned rearing water. However, larval survival rates were low (11.58 ± 6.56% at stocking density of 0.9 larvae l-1), which is probably linked to the density of food items, particularly during the onset of exogenous feeding or due to high stocking density of larvae. To improve the availability of natural food for the larvae, fertilization of the rearing water in the outdoor tanks stocked with larvae at two densities (0.4 and 0.6 larvae l-1) was performed. Larval growth and survival were improved at stocking density of 0.4 larvae l-1 than at 0.6 larvae l-1. Diet composition of first-feeding silver therapon larvae in outdoor tanks inoculated with cultured microalgae (Chorella sorokiniana) and zooplankton was also determined. Larvae were able to consume rotifers and some phytoplankton beginning at 2 DAH and larger preys such as cladocerans and insect larvae starting at 12 DAH.

      The efficacy of raising silver therapon larvae in outdoor tanks using ambient lake water was also evaluated. Larvae reared in ambient lake water grew well but survival (48.44 ± 7.85%) was significantly improved in treatments where tropical almond or talisay Terminalia catappa leaves were added during the first two weeks of larval rearing.
    • Article

      Lunar synchronization of spawning in sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch): Effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) treatment 

      LMB Garcia - Journal of Fish Biology, 1992 - Wiley-Blackwell
      Based on egg collection records, spontaneous spawning activity of sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), reared in floating net cages followed a semilunar cycle. The peak of multiple spawnings coincided with declining spring tides of quarter moon periods. Maximum diameter of intra-ovarian, ripe oocytes (0.51–0.55 mm) occurred in synchrony with the quarter moon periods. Smaller oocytes (0.44–0.47 mm) were sampled during the new and full moon periods. Two structural analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa) (des-Gly10, D-Ala6-LHRH ethylamide and D-Ala6, Pro9-Nethylamide-LHRH), in pelleted or dissolved form, induced mature female sea bass with a mean egg diameter of at least 0.40 mm to spawn at any day during the lunar cycle. The onset of spontaneous and LHRHa-induced spawnings occurred during low tides in the evening until dawn (from 19.00 to 05.00 hours). These results demonstrate that LHRHa can effectively induce mature sea bass to spawn independent of the highly predictable semilunar spawning rhythm. In addition, the occurrence of both spontaneous and hormone-induced spawnings at a precise period of the day suggest a tidal and diurnal cue entraining spawning of mature female sea bass.
    • Book chapter

      Mararison Island 

      LMB Garcia, CL Marte & RF Agbayani - In PM Aliño, EFB Miclat, CL Nañola Jr., HA Roa-Quiaoit & RT Campos (Eds.), Atlas of Philippine Coral Reefs, 2002 - Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. (Goodwill Bookstore)
    • Conference paper

      Marine fishes and coastal resource management: mangrove-friendly development strategies 

      LMB Garcia, JD Toledo & RF Agbayani - In JH Primavera, LMB Garcia, MT Castaños & MB Surtida (Eds.), Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture : Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, January 11-15, 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Recent statistics of fishery production in the Philippines reveal outputs that are either declining (municipal fishery) or levelling off (commercial fishery and aquaculture). These trends are, in part, a reflection of the serious effects of unregulated economic activities in the coastal zone. The degradation of coastal ecosystems means a loss of livelihood among many communities of impoverished fishers as catches from municipal waters have declined over the years. Considering that mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs are vulnerable to anthropogenic perturbations, several development strategies are presented to meet the twin issues of ecosystem conservation and food security for coastal fishing communities. Mariculture, searanching, habitat alteration and restoration are a few of these strategies. Our recent experience in village-based reef resource management in Mararison Island, central Philippines may likewise be a viable option in the management of shoreward ecosystems (mangroves and seagrasses). In particular, the establishment of a marine reserve in the island may find some relevant applications in mangrove management and development.
    • Conference paper

      Marine protected areas in the Philippines: The case of Malalison island in community-based management of reef fisheries 

      LMB Garcia & JH Primavera - In Ecosystem Approach in Action in Biosphere Reserves of Southeast and East Asia with Thematic Exchange on Biosphere … Southeast Asian Biosphere Reserve Network (SeaBRnet), Phnom Penh & Siem Reap, Cambodia, 26 October - 1 November 2003, 2004 - UNESCO Office
      The extensive Philippine coastline of more than 22,540 k m provides the natural habitat of a variety of flora and fauna that make the Philippine archipelago one of the centers of marine biodiversity in the world. Resource-use conflicts, overexploitation, and the pressure to feed the teeming population in many fishing communities have however degraded these habitats, seriously threatening marine biodiversity that supports the biological productivity of the country's coastal fishery. Encouraged by recent enabling national legislation (e.g., the Local Government Code of 1991, the National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992, the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998), grassroots advocacy in many municipalities has grown to address this threat, resulting in the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs), particularly in coral reef management. The over 550 MPA s catalogued in the Philippines to date were established primarily to enhance local fishery yields for artisanal fishers and secondarily to protect coastal habitats for biodiversity conservation and multiple economic uses. Enforcement in a majority of these MPAs is a serious problem however. Many government and donor-assisted projects, such as the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in Puerto Galera and Palawan, have promoted integrated management of both upland and coastal habitats, but these too suffer from persistent conflicts in multiple resource-use and the lack of sustained enforcement by stakeholders.

      Our recent experience in Malalison Island, central Philippines describes the efforts of empowering the island fishers themselves to be effective and responsible managers of their marine resources. Grassroots empowerment required organizing the island fisherfolks in 1991 into a working association to promote collective action on a number of local reef fishery management initiatives, particularly the establishment of exclusive-use rights over the island's reef fishing grounds, which entailed influencing the municipal government and neighboring villages. Specific interventions that followed were highlighted by the establishment of a no-take marine reserve and the deployment of concrete artificial habitats in one of their fishing grounds in Gui-ob reef in 1995-1996. Indicators of equity, efficiency, and sustainability suggest that island fisherfolks have gained greater control over their reef fishery resources, allocated their fair share of access rights, and influenced the formulation of fishery co-management policies through direct participation. In the process of empowerment, the island community leaders and many members have become bold and confident in publicly articulating their vision of sustaining harvest from their reef fisheries, a trait that they have not openly displayed prior to 1991. The experience in Malalison Island has demonstrated that fishery co-management, as exemplified by sustained protection of a no-take marine reserve, can be an achievable goal in the Philippines. It may serve as a valuable model to be followed by other coastal fishing communities in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.