Browsing by Author "Garcia, L. M. B."
ArticleLMB Garcia, CMH Garcia, AFS Pineda, EA Gammad, J Canta, SPD Simon, GV Hilomen-Garcia, AC Gonzal & CB Santiago -
Aquaculture International, 1999 - KluwerBighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Oshima) fry of various ages (11, 18, and 35 days post-hatch) were exposed to the low salinities encountered during the annual intrusion of seawater in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Practical indices of salinity tolerance assessed the effect of a 96 h direct exposure to low salinities (0–16‰). Mean (MST) and median survival times (MST50) of fry decreased as salinity of rearing medium increased. Younger fry were less able to tolerate exposure to these salinities than their older cohorts. Median lethal salinity after 96 h (MLS) revealed higher tolerance among 35–day old fry (7.6‰) than 11 (2.3‰) and 18–day old fry (6.0‰), demonstrating that survival in saline water depends on their age at initial exposure to low salinities. Mean body weight of 18–day old fry reared in 0 and 2‰ for 3 and 4 weeks was higher than for those reared in 4 and 6‰ for the same period. Growth over these periods was inversely related with the range of salinities tested. These results demonstrate that, despite their known stenohalinity, bighead carp fry possess some degree of osmoregulatory capability, allowing them to survive and grow in lakes subjected periodically to saltwater inflow.
Survival of captive milkfish Chanos chanos Forsskal broodstock subjected to handling and transport The survival of milkfish broodstock (body weight range 1–11 kg) was determined until 30 days after handling and transport in open tanks or in sealed oxygenated bags containing chilled sea water (20–25 °C). Maintenance of cool sea water was achieved by the gradual addition of ice chunks or frozen gel packs. A survival rate of 50% after transporting fish at a loading density of 45 kg m−3 for 4 h in open tanks was not significantly different from those that were handled but not transported (86%). Similarly, survival rates (67–83%) among broodstock confined for 8 h in chilled sea water at 40 and 60 kg m−3 were not significantly different from each other or from a group not subjected to confinement. Nevertheless, low dissolved oxygen (DO) and accumulation of total ammonia–nitrogen beginning 1 h after transport and confinement may be responsible for low survival rates of milkfish in open tanks. In contrast, all milkfish survived 10 h of overland transport in sealed bags with chilled and diluted (28 g L−1) sea water. Likewise, all milkfish survived after being bagged and immediately transferred to a communal rearing tank, or bagged and placed in a styrofoam box for 10 h. Except for total ammonia–nitrogen levels, which increased slightly (0.7–0.8 mg L−1) above background, seawater temperature (20–24 °C), salinity (28 g L−1) and DO (6 to > 20 mg mL−1) titres in transport bags were maintained during the 10-h test. The effectiveness of handling and transporting milkfish broodstock in sealed bags containing chilled sea water was verified in actual field trials. Spawning of sexually mature milkfish subjected to these stressors was not impaired. These results demonstrate that mortalities of large milkfish broodstock can be minimized when fish are handled and transported in sealed oxygenated bags containing chilled sea water.