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    • Conference paper

      Diseases affecting wild and farmed mud crab in the Philippines 

      EA Tendencia & MVC Cabilitasan - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Mortalities due to cannibalism and diseases have been reported as major problems in the grow-out phase of mud crab production. This study aimed to identify and describe diseases affecting farmed and wild mud crab (mangrove crab) including predisposing, risk and protective factors, and possible prevention and control measures. A total of 767 wild and farmed mud crab samples were collected. External examination showed abnormalities such as short abdominal flap, discoloration of the abdominal region, darker carapace, lesions on carapace, claws and legs, and presence of epibionts like algae and the barnacles Balanus sp. on the carapace. Internally, necrotic, black and brown gills, and discolored gonads were observed. Stalked barnacles, Octolasmis spp., were observed in the gills. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was detected in 14 samples sourced from farms and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in 2 wild samples. WSSV was implicated in mortality cases. Low temperature and presence of WSSV positive shrimp were identified as risk factors for WSSV infection or outbreak. Pathogenicity tests for some isolated bacteria suggested that these may cause mortality in mud crab under stressful conditions. To prevent mortality due to WSSV infection, it is recommended to avoid polyculture of mud crab with shrimp and/or other crustaceans.
    • Book

      Diseases of juvenile and adult mud crab Scylla spp. in the Philippines 

      EA Tendencia, MVC Cabilitasan & E Tobias-Quinitio - 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 64
      This manual aims to provide updated information on the diseases of mud crabs initially authored by Lavilla-Pitogo and dela Peña (2004). It includes the name of the disease, causative agent, stages affected, effects on mud crab and methods of prevention and control. Except for the infectious diseases caused by viruses, which can be detected through molecular methods, most of the diseases can be visually diagnosed. Photographs of the external and internal anatomy of a normal mud crab, including the different sexes and species are included to help readers differentiate a normal from a diseased mud crab.