Now showing items 1-6 of 6

    • Article

      The effect of different binders on the water stability of feeds for prawn 

      F Piedad-Pascual, L Bandonil & WH Destajo - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1978 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Corn starch, gelatin, sago palm starch, agar, and bread flour were tested for their binding capacity in pelleted diets for Penaeus monodon . Agar was found to be good binder, but it costs too much, while bread flour was also good but as it's commonly used for human comsumption its use for animal feed should be minimized. The use of 20% bread flour, or a combination of 5% sago palm starch or corn starch with 15% bread flour is recommended, depending on the cost and availability. Basic composition of the formulated diet is tabulated, as is water stability of 2 and 4 mm diameter steamed pellets after 2, 6 and 18 h.
    • Article

      An evaluation of three annelids as feed ingredients in formulated diets for juvenile Penaeus monodon 

      F Piedad-Pascual - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1985 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      The nutritive value of two species of earthworms, Eisenia foetida and Eudrilus euginae and the marine annelid, Nereis sp. in P. monodon juvenila diets was determined in two separate experiments. Percentage weight gain and survivla were higher with diets containing Eisenia foetida compared to those of diets with Nereis sp. Diets containing dried worm meal were also better compared to those with frozen worms incorporated in the "wet" form. Incorporation of earthworms at 10% level in the diets improved growth and survival when compared to a control diet. When 30% of Eudrilus euginae was used to replace fish meal in the diet, weight gain and survival of animals were higher compared to those of diets with fish meal.
    • Article

      Growth and survival of Penaeus monodon postlarvae fed shrimp head meal and fish meal as primary animal source of protein 

      F Piedad-Pascual & WH Destajo - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1978 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Although shrimp head meal alone does not provide for good growth and survival, fish meal can provide high survival rate. The addition of shrimp head improves this diet. It is suggested that cholesterol present in shrimp could have caused this difference. Composition of the test diets is tabulated, as are proximate chemical analysis of the diets, and the mean initial weights, final weights, weight gains, survival rate, feed consumed, protein consumed, of Penaeus monodon postlarvae, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio.
    • Book chapter

      Nutrition 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In Biology and culture of Penaeus monodon, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A discussion is presented on dietary requirements of Penaeus monodon during culture operations. Food and feeding habits are described and nutrient requirements detailed, examining proteins and amino acids, lipids and fatty acids, carbohydrates and vitamins and minerals. The development of diets is discussed briefly and the physical characteristics of pellets outlined. Anti-nutritive factors, feed and feedstuff resources, and feeding practices are also considered.
    • Conference paper

      Prawn nutrition, feed development and feeding techniques for grow-out and broodstock 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Seminar Workshop on Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition, University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV), Iloilo City, 25-26 February 1985, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development
      Knowledge on nutritional requirements of prawn juveniles and broodstock are scanty. However, relatively more information is now available with regard to requirements of juveniles compared to that of broodstock.

      Many studies suggest the storage and utilization of lipids for maturation and spawning of P. monodon broodstock. Ovarian lipid increases more than twice at the start of maturation (Stage II) and reaches maximum at full maturity (Stage IV).

      Prawn juveniles require 40-45% protein, 5-10% lipid, and 20-25% carbohydrates. A protein-energy ratio of 120 mg prot/Kcal results in better growth and survival. The quality of protein and lipid is very important for both stages of the prawn. Eleven amino acids are essential but quantitative requirements have not been established. Likewise, amounts of essential fatty acids such as arachidonic, docosapentaenoic and eicosahexaenoic acids have yet to be defined. Cholesterol and lecithin are also necessary.

      Preliminary results of a 35-day feeding experiment showed that a vitamin free semipurified diet, choline-free and inositol-free diets significantly suppressed growth while niacin-free and pyridoxine-free diets provide for similar growth as that of a diet with all the vitamins present. Mineral needs have not been studied for P. monodon.

      Feedstuffs of good nutritive value in prawn grow out and broodstock diets are; fish meal, shrimp head meal, shrimp meal, mussel meat, Acetes sp. or "alamang", soybean meal, squid meal, earthworm meal, and annelids. In addition, cod liver oil, fish liver oil, soybean oil, and beef tallow have been used in varying proportions as sources of some essential fatty acids in practical diet development. Although there are practical diets that can be recommended, improvement of these diets will continue as new nutrient requirements are established.
    • Article

      Supplement of various attractants to a practical diet for juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      T Murai, A Sumalangcay Jr. & F Piedad-Pascual - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1983 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Practical diets supplemented with krill meal (5%), earthworm meal (5%), glycine (2%), sucrose (5%) or mussel extract as an attractant were fed for eight weeks to juvenile Penaeus monodon. The major protein sources of the diets were locally available full-fat soybean meal, fish meal and shrimp meal, and the crude protein level of each diet was adjusted to approximately 40%. For a four to eight-week period, dietary groups supplemented with any type of attractant resulted in better average weight gain than the control group (without any attractant). Prawns fed with a supplementary diet of earthworm meal registered the best growth rate (160% weight gain in eight weeks) which was significantly better than that of the control group. Dietary groups supplemented with earthworm meal and sucrose showed the best and worst survival rates, respectively, in zero to eight-week period. The feed conversion of the latter group was poorest among the dietary groups supplemented with the attractant.