Now showing items 1-3 of 3

    • Book chapter

      Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on larval and survival and reproductive performance in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus 

      DR Chavez, HY Ogata, ES Garibay, HT Sollesta, KR Tibubos, H Furuita & A Suloma - In K Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Series: JIRCAS Working Report No. 56
      Fry of tropical marine fish needed for aquaculture still comes mostly from the wild. Thus, fry availability is a major constraint in the development and extension of aquaculture, especially in rural areas of developing regions. Although the mission of hatcheries is to provide a stable fry production and supply for farmers, fry production remains variable due to poor fecundity and low survival. For the last four years (2002-2005), SEAFDEC/AQD and JIRCAS have conducted the collaborative project that was aimed at developing advanced diets for improving egg production/quality (2002-2005) and larvae/fry quality (2004-2005) through dietary manipulation. Larval rearing tests: In 2005, larval rearing tests (4 trials with rotifers) were conducted to investigate the effects of enriched-live food (4treatments: low (CS) and high (DHAPS) HUFA with or without arachidonic acid supplementation) on survival and growth in rabbitfish Sigunus guttatus fry. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHAPS+5% ArA showed the best survival (44.4±4.5% for D17 fry in the 4th trial).Growth was not different among the treatments (CS, CS+5% ArA, DHAPS, DHPS+5% ArA). Broodstock tests: From March, 2005 to January,2006, a feeding test has been conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation (0% for diet 1, 0.3% for diet 2 and 0.6% for diet 3) on egg production and quality of wild-caught and hatchery-bled rabbitfish broodstock. The broodstock spawned 13 times for diet1 (six pairs), 14 times for diet 2 (five pairs) and 17 times for diet 3 (six pairs) during the period of May 2005 to January, 2006. The total numbers ofhatched-larvae were 3,818 x 103 for diet 1, 4,391 x 103 for diet 2 and 4,597 x 103 for diet 3. The % of normal larvae did not differ among the dietary treatments. Considering together with the results of mangrove red snapper (2003) and rabbitfish (2004), the optimum level of ArA incorporation appears to be between 0.5% and 0.7%. Judging from the results of fatty acid analysis, DHA and arachidonic acid should be supplemented to diets at the same time as to make DHA/arachidonic acid ratio appropriate. Thus, the present study clearly shows that dietary arachidonic acid supplementation is very promising for the development of fry production technologies in tropical areas.
    • Article

      Impact of AMPEP on the growth and occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia infestation on two varieties of commercially cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii grown at different depths in the Philippines 

      IAG Borlongan, KR Tibubos, DAT Yunque, AQ Hurtado & AT Critchley - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2011 - Springer
      Two varieties of the carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Tungawan, TUNG; and Giant tambalang, GTAM) from Zamboanga Sibugay, Philippines were used to test the efficacy of Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder (AMPEP) as source of nutrients for growth, and to determine if applications had any effect on the percent occurrence of an epiphytic infestation of the red alga Neosiphonia sp. at four different depths in the sea. Results showed that the use of AMPEP significantly (P < 0.05) increased the growth rate of both Kappaphycus varieties tested but decreased the percent occurrence of Neosiphonia sp. The percent occurrence of Neosiphonia sp. infection (6–50% at all depths) of both Kappaphycus varieties with AMPEP treatment was significantly lower than the controls (i.e., 10–75% at all depths). Both the growth rate of the cultivated seaweed and the percent occurrence of the epiphytes decreased as the cultivation depth increased. Plants dipped in AMPEP and suspended at the surface had the highest growth rates (i.e., 4.1%, TUNG; 3.1%, GTAM) after 45 days; those without AMPEP dipping had the highest percent occurrence of Neosiphonia infection (viz. 70–75%). The occurrence of Neosiphonia infestation was found to be correlated with changes in irradiance and salinity at the depths observed. The results suggested that both varieties of K. alvarezii used in this study have the fastest growth rate when grown immediately at the water surface. However, in order to minimize damage caused by the occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia, K. alvarezii should be grown within a depth range of 50–100 cm. These observations are important for the improved management of Kappaphycus for commercial farming. Furthermore, the use of AMPEP treatments for enhancement of growth and reduction deleterious Neosiphonia sp. infections is encouraging.
    • Article

      Optimization of culture conditions for tissue culture production of young plantlets of carrageenophyte Kappaphycus 

      DAT Yunque, KR Tibubos, AQ Hurtado & AT Critchley - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2011 - Springer Verlag
      To improve the production of Kappaphycus plantlets in tissue culture, optimum media concentrations of an Ascophyllum nodosum extract (Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder, AMPEP), plant growth regulators (PGR), pH–temperature combinations, and explant density were determined. Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang purple (PUR), kapilaran brown (KAP), vanguard brown (VAN), adik-adik (AA), tungawan green (TGR), and K. striatum var. sacol green (GS) were used as explants. Based on the shortest period for shoot emergence and the economical use of AMPEP, the optimum enriched media was 3.0 mg L−1 AMPEP and 0.1 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR 1 mg L−1 each phenylacetic acid (PAA) and zeatin for PUR, 1.0 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR for KAP and GS, 0.1 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR for VAN, and 3.0 mg L−1 AMPEP and 0.001 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR for AA and TGR. Results showed that the addition of PGR to low concentrations of AMPEP hastened shoot formation. pH–temperature combinations for the most rapid shoot formation were determined for the brown (KAP) and purple (PUR) color morphotypes of K. alvarezii var. tambalang and the green morphotype of K. striatum var. sacol (GS) cultured in 1.0 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR. The brown morphotype produced the most number of shoots at pH 7.7 at 20°C after as little as 20 days. Purple K. alvarezii showed an increased shoot formation at pH 6.7 at 25°C and the green K. striatum morphotype at pH 8.7 at 25°C. The optimum number of explants added to the culture media was also determined for tungawan green (TGR), brown (KAP), and tambalang purple (PUR) varieties of K. alvarezii in 1.0 mg L−1 AMPEP + PGR. The number of explants and the volume of the culture media combination were also tested. The highest average number of shoots formed occurred in two explants:1 mL culture media (2:1) for KAP and PUR (35.00% and 16.67%, respectively) and 1 explant: 2 mL culture media for the TGR (100.00%) with a range of 0.5–3.0 mm shoot length after 40 days in culture. The earliest shoot formation was observed after 21 days for the brown and 9 days for both the green and purple color morphotypes of Kappaphycus, in all densities investigated. This indicated that within the range tested, the density of explants did not have a significant effect on the rate of shoot formation but did influence the average number generated from the culture. The rate of production of new and improved Kappaphycus explants for a commercial nursery stock was improved through the use of AMPEP with optimized culture media pH, temperature, and density conditions.