Now showing items 1-5 of 5

    • Article

      Distribution of nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides with asymptomatic infection 

      I Kiryu, LD de la Peña & Y Maeno - Fish Pathology, 2007 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Distribution of nervous necrosis virus in asymptomatically infected orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides was determined by PCR assay in this study. Fourteen different tissues and organs were collected from apparently healthy groupers including seven individuals of broodstock and 17 juveniles with body weight ranging from 4 to 12 kg and from 2 to 9 g, respectively. No cytopathic effects were found in E-11 cells inoculated with filtrates of sample homogenates. However, all the broodstock and juveniles were positive by nested PCR test except for one juvenile. One hundred percent detection rate of the virus was obtained only from the brain.
    • Article

      Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines 

      Y Maeno, LD de la Peña & ER Cruz-Lacierda - Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 2004 - Ministry of Tropical Agricultural Research Centre
      Viral nervous necrosis (VNN), also known as viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), is an emerging disease affecting larvae and juveniles of many farmed marine fish species in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Mass mortality occurred in 14-day old larval sea bass Lates calcarifer at a hatchery in the Philippines associated with clinical signs such as abnormal swimming behavior and pale-gray discoloration of the body. Histological investigations in moribund fish revealed marked vacuolation in the retina and brain. Cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected sea bass. A piscine nodavirus, the causative agent of VNN, was detected in the affected tissues and SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected fish by RT-PCR. Electron microscopy revealed non-enveloped viral particles, 22-28 nm in diameter, in the cytoplasm of the brain and retina of affected fish and in the cytoplasm of VNN-infected SSN-1 cells after CPE appeared. These results indicate that mass mortality of sea bass larvae in the Philippines was caused by a piscine nodavirus.
    • Article

      Mass mortality of hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) caused by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, Y Maeno, AJT Pineda & VE Matey - Aquaculture, 2004 - Elsevier
      Outbreaks of heavy infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum in hatchery-reared milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) caused 100% mortality events in hatcheries in the Philippines. Parasites were recorded on the body surface in 14-day-old milkfish fry and on both skin and gills in 2-month-old snapper. Trophonts of A. ocellatum caused local erosions of fish skin and degeneration of epithelial cells at the sites of the parasite's attachment to the body surface. Separation and hyperplasia of gill epithelium and fusion of secondary lamellae at the distal parts of the gill filaments were common. High pathogenicity of A. ocellatum to fish may be attributed to the severe alterations of the fish gills, the disruption of the host's skin, and feeding of trophonts on hosts' epithelial cells. In-vivo treatments of A. ocellatum-infested snapper with a 1 h freshwater bath and 200 ppm H2O2 showed promising results. This is the first report of A. ocellatum infestation in milkfish and mangrove red snapper in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Nodavirus infection in hatchery-reared orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: First record of viral nervous necrosis in the Philippines 

      Y Maeno, LD de la Peña & ER Cruz-Lacierda - Fish Pathology, 2002 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Mass mortality occurred in 34-day old larval orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides reared at a hatchery in the Philippines with clinical signs such as anorexia and abnormal swimming behavior. Histopathology of moribund fish demonstrated marked vacuolation of the brain, spinal cord and retina. Cytopathic effects were observed in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected grouper. Electron microscopy revealed non-enveloped virus particles measuring 20 to 25 nm in diameter in the cytoplasm of degenerated SSN-1 cells. Piscine nodavirus (betanodavirus), the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), was detected in the affected tissues and SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected fish by RT-PCR. This is the first record of VNN in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Susceptibility of fish species cultured in mangrove brackish area to piscine nodavirus 

      Y Maeno, LD de la Peña & ER Cruz-Lacierda - Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 2007 - Tropical Agricultural Research Centre
      Susceptibility of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides, Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer, mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, and rabbitfish Siganus guttatus to piscine nodavirus from orange-spotted grouper was studied by experimental infection. The fish were intraperitoneally injected with 0.05 mL of the filtrate homogenate of infected organs from diseased grouper at 106.8, 105.8 or 104.8 TCID50/fish, while the control group received 0.05 mL of Hanks’ balanced salt solution. Clinical signs such as lethargy, anorexia and darkened pigmentation were observed in the orange-spotted grouper, Asian sea bass, mangrove red snapper, and milkfish injected with high and medium doses of the homogenate. Although no or little mortality occurred in the experimentallyinfected fish 10 days post-inoculation, viral nervous necrosis specific lesions such as severe necrosis and vacuolation in the brain and retina were produced in these four fish species. The virus was reisolated in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the filtrated tissue homogenate of survivors in all doses for all four fish species. However, in the experimentally infected rabbitfish no histological lesion was observed, and no virus was reisolated. These results indicate that grouper, sea bass, mangrove red snapper, and milkfish are susceptible to the piscine nodavirus isolated from diseased grouper.