Now showing items 1-19 of 19

    • Article

      Apparent digestibility of diets with various carbohydrate levels and the growth response of Penaeus monodon 

      MR Catacutan - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      The digestibility of four isonitrogenous practical diets (40% crude protein) containing different levels (5%, 15%, 25% and 35%) of gelatinized breadflour as carbohydrate source were determined for P. monodon (average weight 30–40 g). The digestibility coefficients for protein ranged from 92.8 to 94.3%. Crude fat digestibility ranged from 90.0 to 92.8% and dry matter digestibility from 75.7 to 86.9%. Carcass crude protein was similar in all treatments but carcass crude fat decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing dietary carbohydrate.

      The same diets were fed to a group of smaller P. monodon (average initial weight=0.139±0.011 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among treatments. However, weight gain and SGR were lowest and FCR was poorest with 35% carbohydrate.
    • Book chapter

      Aquafeed: formulation, processing of feed ingredients and feed preparation 

      MR Catacutan - In Training Handbook on Rural Aquaculture, 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Development of practical diet for the grow-out culture of Scylla serrata in ponds 

      MR Catacutan, MF Mallare & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FDP Estepa, YC Thampi Sam Raj & A Mandal (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar-Workshop on Mud Crab Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 10-12 April 2013, Tamil Nadu, India, 2015 - Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture (MPEDA)
      A series of feeding experiments were conducted in the laboratory and in ponds of SEAFDEC/AQD using hatchery-produced Scylla serrata juveniles to develop an effective pelleted grow-out diet. The practical feed ingredients included local and imported fishmeal, shrimp meal, copra meal, soybean meal, corn grits and squid liver powder. The other feed ingredients were rice bran, wheat pollard, bread flour and micronutrient mixes. The results in the laboratory trials were used to improve the feed composition for the culture of crab juveniles in grow-out ponds. Three runs (Run 1 - 108 days, Run 2 - 129 days and Run 3 - 114 days) were conducted in 270m2 ponds. Crab juveniles at stocking densities of 0.08 - 0.10m-2 were fed two dietary treatments containing 44% and 38% crude protein at similar dietary energy level estimated at 17 MJ/kg diet.

      There were no significant differences in the survival, growth and feed conversion ratio in each of the three runs. In Run 1, the survival rate of crabs fed with 44% protein was higher (56-77%) than crabs fed with 38% protein (35-50%), but these were not significantly different. In Run 2, < 5 g crabs could grow up to a mean body weight of 435 g with survival rates of 31- 45% after 129 days on a ration consisting of 80% pelleted formulated feed and 20% low value fish. Similarly in Run 3, a mean of 443 g was attained in less than 4 months with survival rates of 30-73%. The final average weight and specific growth rate of crabs fed these two diets were not significantly different which showed that in ponds, the 38% crude protein diet was able to sustain growth as with the 44% diet provided the dietary energy is similar. The feed conversion ratio for both test diets and low value fish showed a great variation (low value fish 1 to 4; test diets 1.81 to 5.6).

      This study showed that low value fish as the traditional feed for mud crab in the grow-out culture can be decreased to only 20% of the ration by incorporating 80% of formulated pelleted feed.
    • Article

      Digestibility in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): Effects of protein source, fish size and salinity 

      RP Ferraris, MR Catacutan, RL Mabelin & AP Jazul - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      The true digestibility of casein, gelatin, fish meal, defatted soybean meal and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal was measured in 60- and 175-g milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) in fresh- and seawater. The diets contained 45% of these feedstuffs and 1.3% of the indicator substance, chromic oxide. The intestinal dissection method was used to collect fecal material. Results showed that the length of time between initial feeding and fish sacrifice did not significantly affect digestibility. Gelatin was the most digestible (90–98%) protein, regardless of size. Casein, defatted soybean meal and fish meal were moderately digestible (50–90%) and digestibility coefficients tended to increase as a function of fish size. L. leucocephala was the least digestible (−10–40%). The digestibility of most of these feedstuffs was less in the anterior than in the posterior intestine, and tended to be lower in seawater than in freshwater. Rate of food movement was similar in both size groups, but was significantly faster when milkfish were in seawater rather than in freshwater. The effect of salinity on digestibility may in part be due to food motility changes necessitated by alterations in osmoregulatory processes when fish are in seawater.
    • Article

      Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer 

      MR Catacutan & RM Coloso - Aquaculture, 1995 - Elsevier
      The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.
    • Article

      Effects of dietary l-tryptophan on the agonistic behavior, growth and survival of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata 

      JLQ Laranja Jr., ET Quinitio, MR Catacutan & RM Coloso - Aquaculture, 2010 - Elsevier
      The reduction of the survival of mud crab during culture has been largely attributed to aggressive encounters and cannibalism. In some crustaceans, suppressed aggression is linked to increased concentration of circulating and brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Likewise, tryptophan (TRP), a precursor of 5-HT is reported to suppress the aggression and improve the survival of some cultured fish through dietary supplementation. We investigated the effects of feeding formulated diet with different TRP levels (0.32% as control, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% of dry diet) on the agonistic behavior, growth and survival of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata. Mud crabs were individually stocked and fed the experimental diets for 4 weeks before they were set to a one hour fight experiment. The fights were recorded using a video camera and the aggressiveness of the crabs was quantified. Hemolymph was sampled after 15 and 30 days of feeding (resting) and right after the fight to measure circulating 5-HT concentration. Higher TRP levels suppressed the aggressiveness of mud crab in a dose dependent manner. The intensity and frequency of attacks were both significantly lower (P < 0.05) in those given diets containing 0.75% and 1% TRP as compared with the control. Serotonin-ELISA assay revealed that 5-HT levels in the hemolymph before the fight (after 15 and 30 days; resting) were not significantly different between treatments. However after the fight, 5-HT concentration was significantly higher in TRP-supplemented mud crabs as compared with the control (0.5% = P < 0.05; 0.75% and 1% = P < 0.01). Furthermore, mud crabs (0.16 g BW) were reared in 0.40 m2 circular tanks at 20 crabs/tank and fed the experimental diets for 30 days to determine growth and survival. Survival was higher in TRP-supplemented mud crabs (0.5% = 35%, 0.75% = 33.33%, 1% = 35%) as compared with the control (18.33%). However, daily growth gain (DRG), relative growth rate (RGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were reduced in TRP-supplemented groups than with the control group. In conclusion, the data shows that the aggressive behavior of juvenile mud crab can be suppressed by supplementation of L-TRP. The survival of juvenile mud crab can be improved by increasing the level of TRP to 0.5%–1%. However, higher TRP levels may affect growth of mud crab. TRP supplementation resulted to a significant increase of 5-HT concentration in the hemolymph which was clearly observed after the fight suggesting that 5-HT plays an important role in suppressing the agonistic behavior of mud crab during aggressive encounters.
    • Book chapter

      Formulation of aquafeeds 

      MR Catacutan - In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The development of a feed that is both effective and economical for an aquaculture species in all its life stages is a continuous effort. Aquafeed development started when natural food sources in culture systems became inadequate and had to be supplemented with prepared feed. As fish stocking densities in culture increase, supplemental feeding is no longer sufficient. A complete feed that contains all the necessary nutrients in sufficient amounts to bring about good growth, survival, and reproduction is needed. Feed ingredients generally come from animal or plant sources and some are by-products of the food industry. There is no single feed ingredient or feedstuff that contains all the nutrients in adequate amounts. Thus, different feed ingredients are combined to make a feed that has the desired composition and nutrient levels. In combining various feed ingredients, it is important to know how much of each feed ingredient should be used to produce a cost-effective aquafeed.

      With the growth and expansion of aquaculture into a major industry, several fish species are being cultured; thus, the development of more efficient aquafeed formulations should continue. In developing cost-effective formulated diets, many important factors have to be considered. This chapter discusses these factors and the mathematical calculations in formulating a feed. It aims to enable students to formulate diets using purified and practical feed ingredients, and also to formulate effective supplemental and complete diets for aquaculture species.
    • Book

      Grow-out culture of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus Forsskal, 1775) in ponds 

      EB Coniza, MR Catacutan & PA Caballero - 2012 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 53
      The mangrove red snapper is among the high-value marine fishes with great potential for export. Snapper is important to coastal fishery and ideal for aquaculture particularly in Southeast Asia. Grow-out culture of snapper are described - pond culture and culture in cages inside the ponds. In the pond culture, the whole area can be maximized and the available natural food can be utilized by snapper. In rearing snapper in cages inside the pond, fish sampling and harvesting are easily done and also in preventing of disease infection and securing of fish stocks during flooding. In both culture methods a good site would have a mangrove buffer space about 20-100 m that lies between the ponds and the source of water like river or sea. Pond soil with a good water retention property is desirable for dike construction. Water supply should be adequate year-round, free from pollutants and run-off flooding. Pond supplies, labor and technology should be available on the selected site which is also accessible to markets with peaceful locale. The pond for growing snapper should be prepared well in order to promote good growth of fish, to minimize pollution, and prevents the proliferation of pathogens. Stocking of healthy and larger uniform size juveniles will mean higher survival, faster growth and shorter culture period. Proper handling of juveniles during harvest, size-grading, counting, packing, transport, acclimation and stocking should be observed and should be done during the cooler part of the day. Recommended juveniles for grow-out is about 20-100 g average body weight (ABW) and stocking densities of 5,000/ha in ponds, and at 5 pcs/m3 or 5,000 pcs/ha when stocked in cages inside the pond. During culture, good water quality is maintained and when necessary the cleaning of net cages, repair of dike leaks and seepages, and aeration are to be considered. Snapper dietary protein is about 48-50%. The following are the factors to consider in the feeding management of snapper: total stock (pcs), survival (%), ABW (g), feed rate (% biomass), feed type, feed size, feeding frequency and time. Economic analysis based on 0.422 ha pond shows that feeds accounted for 60-67% and juveniles contribute 23-25% of the variable cost. The feed conversion ratios, return on investments, payback period and discounted benefit-cost ratios are 2.5 and 2.6; 203 and 43%; 0.46 and 1.76 yr; 1.4 and 1.2 for culture of snapper in pond and culture in cages inside the pond, respectively, are likewise acceptable.
    • Book chapter

      Grow-out culture of seabass, grouper and snapper in ponds 

      EB Coniza & MR Catacutan - In Training Handbook on Rural Aquaculture, 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book

      Grow-out culture of the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) 

      EB Coniza, MR Catacutan & JD Tan-Fermin - 2008 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 41
      Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus is an esteemed food fish especially in Southeast Asia due to its tender and delicious meat. This commodity constitutes a valuable fishery for small-scale fishers in the region and has a great potential for aquaculture. The important considerations in the grow-out culture of catfish are reliable water supply, soil with good compaction properties for dike construction, supply of fingerlings, feeds, labor, pond supplies and technology assistance. The farm must also be accessible by road, near to market facilities and has a peaceful environment. Rearing catfish in ponds is the most popular and commonly practiced. The pen culture is a system fully enclosed by nets on all sides but utilizes the dug-out pond, dam or lake bed as bottom enclosure. Tanks in abandoned old hatcheries with freshwater source can be used for catfish culture. In the cage culture system the stock is fully enclosed by nylon nets on all sides and bottom similar to an inverted mosquito net installed in suitable areas like reservoirs, dams, lakes and dug-out ponds. The rice-fish (catfish) culture is also practiced where the rice pond canals are utilized to retain water at 1-2 m depth to provide shelter to the fish while the rice plot maintains 10-20 cm water depth. For the stock, select fingerlings that are active, healthy and uniform in size. Handling of fish stock is important to avoid mortality due to stress during harvest, sorting, counting and transport. Furthermore, stocking of fish is recommended during the cooler part of the day. Catfish fingerlings stocking density is about 5 to 20 pcs/m2 depending on the water supply and support facilities of the farm. The catfish, C. macrocephalus, requires a substantial amount of dietary protein for growth. For this species a formulated diet with crude protein (CP) of 34%, moist diet (trash fish or blanched chicken entrails plus rice bran or cooked broken rice), and a combination of pellet feeds (50%) and moist diet (50%) have been tested and acceptable for the grow-out culture. Economic evaluation based on a grow-out culture in pond with an area of 1,000 m2 showed that feeds and fingerlings are the major variable costs. The net income, return on investments and payback period, respectively range from PhP22,972-PhP35,741, 80-122% and 0.8-1.2 years when using pellet, moist feed or a combination of these feeds. Feeding using formulated diet has an advantage of convenience, quality and quantity over moist diet which has issues such as inconsistent supply, storage requirement and fouling the rearing water.
    • Growth and feed efficiency in mangrove red snapper, (Lutjanus argentimaculatus Forsskal 1775) fed practical diets supplemented with L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg 

      MR Catacutan, GE Pagador, E Doyola-Solis, S Teshima & M Ishikawa - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2011 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      Growth and feed efficiency were determined in red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775), fed diets containing L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (AMP). Fish (13.39±0.08 g) were fed a practical diet without vitamin C supplement for four weeks then stocked in twelve 650-l tanks at 30 fish/tank and fed one of four practical diets containing AMP at 0, 60, 180, or 540 mg/kg dry diet for 17 weeks. Survival rates in all treatments were similar (88.9-98.9%). Fish fed the 0 or 540 ppm diets had inferior final average weights, protein efficiency ratios, and feed conversion ratios than fish fed the 60 or 80 ppm diets (p<0.05). Growth of fish fed the 0 or 540 ppm diets slowed down on day 60 and fish fed the AMP-free diet exhibited clinical signs of vitamin C deficiency with a soft body and a significantly high (p<0.05) hepatosomatic index. Ascorbic acid in brain and liver tissues rose with the level of dietary AMP. Fish fed the 540 ppm diet had significantly lower hematocrit (p<0.05) than fish fed the 60 or 180 ppm diets. Histological analysis of the liver and kidney of fish fed the 180 and 540 ppm diets showed changes indicative of possible toxic effects. Based on growth, feed efficiency, tissue histology, and hematocrit level, AMP at 540 ppm is toxic to snapper. Thus, supplementation of 60 ppm AMP or its equivalent 26 ppm ascorbic acid in practical diets for red snapper promotes optimum growth and feed efficiency and prevents vitamin C deficiency symptoms.
    • Article

      Growth and mid-gut cells profile of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed water-soluble-vitamin deficient diets 

      MR Catacutan & M de la Cruz - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      Growth and changes in the mid-gut cell morphology of Penaeus monodon juveniles were evaluated after feeding for 35 days with semi-purified diets deficient in water-soluble vitamins. Diets were prepared by deleting one vitamin at a time from the vitamin supplement consisting of cyanocobalamine, folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, niacin, choline, inositol and ascorbic acid. Controls were the complete vitamin diet (control diet 1) and the no vitamin diet (control diet 2). Growth rate was poorest for treatment without vitamin supplement and the inositol and choline-deficient diets. Enhanced growth was observed in prawns fed with the riboflavin-deficient diet. All treatments except control diet 1 showed histopathological changes in the mid-gut cells. Detachment or destruction of the epithelial cells were observed in most cases but more severely in treatments without vitamin supplement followed by inositol, choline and vitamin C.
    • Article

      Growth of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, fed varying carbohydrate and lipid levels 

      MR Catacutan & RM Coloso - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      Growth performance of juvenile seabass (initial mean body weight, 0.90 ± 0.04 g) fed varying carbohydrate and lipid levels were determined using practical diets in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment. Two carbohydrate levels (15 and 20%) and three lipid levels (6, 12 and 18%) at a fixed protein level of 42.5% were tested. Dietary energy ranged from 284 to 412kcal 100g−1 diet. The fish were reared for 12 weeks in 601 flow-through tanks with aeration in seawater at 32%. and at 26.5–29 °C.

      Higher weight gains were observed in fish fed diets containing 20% carbohydrate with 12 or 18% lipid. Lowest specific growth rate was observed in fish fed the 15% carbohydrate at 6% lipid. Survival was 100% in all treatments. The feed conversion ratios for fish fed 20% carbohydrate at 12 or 18% lipid, and 15% carbohydrate with 12% lipid were best. Specific growth rate and weight gain did not differ at lower dietary lipid (12-6% or 18-12%) despite an increase of dietary carbohydrate indicating a sparing of lipid by carbohydrate as an energy source. Dietary lipid at 18% (1:1 ratio of cod liver oil and soybean oil) seems to be excessive for seabass. Based on this study, we recommend a carbohydrate level of 20% in diets containing lipid levels ranging from 6 to 18%.
    • Article

      L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate Mg as source of vitamin C for juvenile Penaeus monodon 

      MR Catacutan & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1994 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Phosphated ascorbic acid (MAP), a stable vitamin C derivative, was used in practical diets for Penaeus monodon (wet weight, 126-254 mg) as a source of vitamin C. In Experiment I, the levels were from 0 to 1,500 ppm MAP. No significant differences in weight gain, SGR, survival and FCR were observed among treatment means after 92 days of feeding but the lowest values were obtained in the group fed without the MAP dietary supplement. At the start of the experiment shrimps were infected with monodon baculovirus (MBV). However, the histological structure of the hepatopancreas showed improvement in animals fed diets containing 100 ppm MAP and above, after 92 days.

      In Experiment II, shrimps were given different MAP levels (0 to 8,000 ppm) for 81 days. The FCR and survival of shrimps in MAP supplemented diets were significantly higher than those without MAP. In both experiments, shrimps without dietary MAP were weak and developed blackened subcuticular tissues, a symptom of vitamin C deficiency. MAP was utilized by P. monodon as a source of vitamin C. An adequate level in a practical diet would be 100 to 200 ppm MAP, equivalent to 50 to 100 ppm ascorbic acid.
    • Article

      Partial replacement of fishmeal by defatted soybean meal in formulated diets for the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775) 

      MR Catacutan & GE Pagador - Aquaculture Research, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effect on growth and feed efficiencies of the mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) when dietary fishmeal is partially replaced by defatted soybean meal (DSM). In the preliminary experiment, snapper (mean weight±SD, 58.22±5.28 g) were fed in triplicate with different dietary amounts of DSM (7.8–42.2%) that were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. After 14 weeks, survival, growth and feed efficiencies, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ. Based on these results, a feeding trial was done using a positive control diet that contained 64% fishmeal, while the other four diets had DSM levels of 12%, 24%, 36%, and 48% that replaced fishmeal protein at 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% respectively. All diets were formulated to have about the same protein level (50%), protein to energy ratio (P/E of 25-mg protein kJ−1), and dietary energy (19.8 MJ kg−1). These were fed to triplicate groups of snapper (mean total weight tank−1±SD, 73.19±1.2 g) at 15 fish (average weight, 4.88 g) per 1.5-t tank for 19 weeks. Growth (final average weight and specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, and HSI were not significantly different (P>0.05) while protein efficiency ratios or PERs were similar in treatments with DSM. Among snapper fed DSM, haematocrit value was significantly lower in fish fed 48% DSM and not different with fish fed 36% DSM. Whole-body crude fat of snapper fed 48% DSM was lowest while the crude protein and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were highest. Histopathological analysis showed that lipid vacuoles in livers of snapper were reduced in size as dietary DSM increased. There was slight lipid deposition in the liver of snapper at 36% DSM while at 48% DSM it was excessive and hepatocytes were necrotic. There were no differences in the histology of snapper intestine. Under the experimental condition of this study, DSM can be used in snapper diets at 24% (replacing 25% of fishmeal protein) based on growth, survival and feed efficiencies, and histology of liver and intestine. For a lesser diet cost, an inclusion level higher than 24% DSM is possible with a bioavailable phosphorus supplement.
    • Conference paper

      Pilot scale production of pellets suitable for mud crab Scylla serrata 

      RM Coloso, MR Catacutan, JP Peralta, JG Genodepa, K Duno & R Gardoce - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Studies were conducted towards the pilot scale production of stable and nutritionally adequate pellets suitable for mud crab Scylla serrata to help in efforts to increase mud crab production in the Philippines. Preliminary studies showed that mud crabs preferred pellets which were spherical or cylindrical and contained marine based attractants. Two practical diets were formulated and prepared in the Pilot Feed Mill of SEAFDEC/AQD. The extruded diets, along with a commercial mud crab grow-out diet, were subjected to proximate and Ca/P analyses as well as cholesterol analysis and water stability tests. The diets were fed to crabs in a controlled laboratory experiment using fiberglass tanks with flow-through, aerated seawater, and monitored from initial molt (M0) up to the second molt (M2). Tests revealed that the crabs fed Diet 1 (CP 48.28 %, CF 7.74 %, Ca 5.23%, P 12.93 %, cholesterol 0.173 %) showed the highest growth and better survival than those fed Diet 2 or commercial diet. Crabs fed Diet 1 took a shorter time to attain two molt cycles from M0. Survival was 70% after M2. Diet 1 was water stable within two hours. Abnormalities were observed including absent swimming legs or chelae, exposed gills, sores on exoskeleton, incomplete molting, or soft exoskeleton, but none that could be directly attributed to a specific treatment. Incomplete molting and slow hardening of the exoskeleton in crabs that accounted for the mortalities could be due to the low cholesterol levels in the diets especially in the commercial diet which had the lowest cholesterol level. Cholesterol supplementation of the artificial diet would be needed to improve molting success and survival of mud crabs in grow-out culture. The results of these experiments will be used to formulate a cost-effective grow-out diet for mud crab (supported by DOST-PCAARRD Grant in Aid).
    • Conference paper

      Protein and dry matter digestibility of feedstuffs in complete diets for Penaeus monodon 

      MR Catacutan - In Y Zhou, H Zhou, C Yao, Y Lu, F Hu, H Cui & F Din (Eds.), The Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum: Proceedings of the Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum, Beijing, 16-20 October 1995, 1997 - Asian Fisheries Society
      The digestibilities of animal and plant protein sources were determined for P. monodon (30 ~ 40 g wet weight). Protein sources were incorporated in complete diets containing the indicator, chromic oxide at 1.8%. Casein, (APDC=97.9%) was highly digested. The APDC values of shrimp meal (Acetes sp.) and squid meal were 95.4% and 96.0%, respectively. These values did not differ from those for plant protein sources such as soybean meal (93.4%), yeast (93.0%) and wheat germ meal (91.9%). Fish meal (60.75%), meat and bone meal (73.8%) and copra meal (75.2%) had significantly lower APDC values while shrimp head meal and testis meal were digested at 89%~90%. Assimilation (U1) of dietary organic matter by the ash-free method ranged from 58.3%~90.19%. The TPDC of feedstuffs were generally higher by about 5% than the APDC. A highly positive correlation was observed between APDC and ADMDC (r=90). Protein content of all diets which ranged from 12.9%~60.18% showed no correlation with APDC, TPDC, ADMDC and U1. This study showed that the shrimp has the capability to similarly digest plant and animal protein sources.
    • Conference paper

      Requirements of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, for lysine and arginine 

      RM Coloso, DP Murillo, IG Borlongan & MR Catacutan - In Towards More Effective Utilization of Resources for Sustained Development. Proceedings of the First IFS-NRCP Seminar-Workshop, 26-29 April 1993, Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1993 - International Foundation for Science
      The dietary requirements of juvenile sea bass for the essential amino acids, lysine and arginine, were studied. Fish (Initial average weight in Lysine (Study 1) and Arginine (Study 2) experiments were 13.1 g and 2.5 g, respectively) were given amino acid test diets that contained fish meal, zein, squid meal, and crystalline amino acids (about 46% dietary protein) for 12 weeks. Each set of nitrogenous and isocaloric test diets contained graded levels of lysine or arginine. Fish were fed twice a day at 0800 and 1600 h: in Study 1, feeding rate was 4-2.5% of body weight per day throughout the experiment, while in Study 2, fish were fed at a rate of 10% body wt per day during the first four weeks and at 4% body wt per day from 5 to 12 weeks thereafter. The fish were reared in 500 li (Study 1) or 250 li (Study 2) fiberglass tanks provided with flowthrough seawater at 28°C and salinity of 30 ppt. At the end of the feeding experiment, growth, survival, and feed efficiency were determined. Survival was high in fish given adequate lysine or arginine. Mean weight gains were significantly different in fish fed varying levels of lysine or arginine but no significant different in fish fed varying levels of lysine or arginine but no significant differences were found in the hepatosomatic index (HSI), survival, and feed efficiently ratio. From the breakpoint analysis of the growth response curves, the dietary requirements of sea bass juveniles for lysine and arginine are 4.5 and 3.6% of dietary protein, respectively. This information is important in developing research diets and practical feeds for sea bass.
    • Article

      Tissue lipid content and fatty acid composition during ovarian maturation of ablated Penaeus monodon 

      OM Millamena, RA Pudadera & MR Catacutan - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1993 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The total lipid content and fatty acid composition in the hepatopancreas, muscle and gonad of ablated Penaeus monodon females at ovarian maturation Stages I to V were examined. The lipid content was highest in the hepatopancreas, 22.5% to 34.9% dry wt. There was no marked variation with maturation stage in muscle lipid levels. Ovarian lipid content more than doubled the initial value of 7.5% at commencement of maturation Stage II, and progressively increased to a maximum of 21.9% at full maturity (Stage IV), corollary to a rise in hepatopancreas lipid. The findings suggest lipids are stored and utilized for gonadal development and spawning. Fatty acid profiles in the tissues showed a predominance of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The characteristically high levels of PUFA in mature shrimp ovaries and presence in spawned eggs are indicative of their metabolic and physiological importance in penaeid shrimp reproduction.