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    • Article

      Changes in plasma osmolality and chloride concentration during abrupt transfer of milkfish (Chanos chanos) from seawater to different test salinities 

      RP Ferraris, JM Almendras & AP Jazul - Aquaculture, 1988 - Elsevier
      Milkfish juveniles (40, 120 or 260 g) were acclimated to 32 ppt seawater, then abruptly transferred to water with salinities of 0, 16, 32 (control) or 48 ppt. Blood samples were taken 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 or 14 days after transfer. Survival rate was 95% or greater in all salinities. Plasma osmolality in fish exposed to salinities other than 16 or 32 ppt deviated from control values immediately after transfer but were subsequently regulated to near normal levels after several days. Although these deviations were significant, they were relatively small (≤20% of initial) as plasma osmolality changed by less than 0.07 mOsm/kg per unit change environmental salinity. Plasma chloride values generally followed the same pattern of changes as plasma osmolality. When these deviations were integrated across time, summed deviations (mOsm·day kg−1 or mEq·day l−1) were proportional to the osmotic or ionic gradient but were inversely proportional to size. For 40-g fish, summed deviations were larger in 48 than in 0 ppt; for 120- or 260-g fish, these deviations were larger in 0 than in 48 ppt. These results indicate that small milkfish tend to adapt better to fresh than to hypersaline water while larger milkfish are more likely to find hypersaline water less stressful than freshwater. Like other organ systems previously studied in milkfish, these size-dependent adaptations in osmoregulatory mechanisms reflect natural habitat shifts during development.
    • Article

      Digestibility in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal): Effects of protein source, fish size and salinity 

      RP Ferraris, MR Catacutan, RL Mabelin & AP Jazul - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      The true digestibility of casein, gelatin, fish meal, defatted soybean meal and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal was measured in 60- and 175-g milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) in fresh- and seawater. The diets contained 45% of these feedstuffs and 1.3% of the indicator substance, chromic oxide. The intestinal dissection method was used to collect fecal material. Results showed that the length of time between initial feeding and fish sacrifice did not significantly affect digestibility. Gelatin was the most digestible (90–98%) protein, regardless of size. Casein, defatted soybean meal and fish meal were moderately digestible (50–90%) and digestibility coefficients tended to increase as a function of fish size. L. leucocephala was the least digestible (−10–40%). The digestibility of most of these feedstuffs was less in the anterior than in the posterior intestine, and tended to be lower in seawater than in freshwater. Rate of food movement was similar in both size groups, but was significantly faster when milkfish were in seawater rather than in freshwater. The effect of salinity on digestibility may in part be due to food motility changes necessitated by alterations in osmoregulatory processes when fish are in seawater.