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    • Conference paper

      Economic and social considerations in seafarming and searanching 

      KC Chong - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Sustainable development of seafarming and searanching calls for careful planning. Investments in seafarming must take into account environmental, biotechnological, and socioeconomic considerations. Investment planning must be carefully examined as well as the physical design of production systems such that its negative impact is minimized and the positive impact is accentuated.Supply from the wild may not be expected to grow much higher than present levels. Many of the major commercially valuable fisheries are now overfished at or close to their respective minimum sustainable yield levels. Seafarming can attract some of the fishermen out of overcrowded fisheries.Production cost of seafarming produce is a major concern which has to be examined closely if these are to compete with and gradually supplant the supply of fish from the wild. Feed is one of the main inhibiting factors, hence, efficient consideration calls for constantly improving feed conversion and productivity per unit input.Existing government policies are not clear nor conducive to seafarming in terms of use rights of coastal waters. To attract potential investors into seafarming, governments are encouraged to review existing policies governing use rights to coastal waters, package the necessary technology consistent with the country's wage and price structure, and develop investment profile for seafarming opportunities using conservative criteria.
    • Conference paper

      Southeast Asian milkfish culture: Economic status and prospects 

      IR Smith & KC Chong - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre; Island Publishing House, Inc.
      Historically, milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) has been the premier aquaculture product in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan. However, there are significant differences in the industry's performance among and within these places, especially in terms of yield. These differences can be explained by different factor (land, labor, capital) endowments and by the fact that producers have generally been responsive to these conditions. In Taiwan and the Philippines, milkfish production is becoming less profitable over time. In both places, brackishwater pond producers of milkfish are caught in a cost-price squeeze as input costs have increased more rapidly than market prices. Indonesian producers also face market constraints because high regional transport costs often isolate them from major market centers. In response to declining profitability of milkfish, producers have been changing their production techniques and shifting to the culture of other species such as tilapia that currently have greater domestic or export market potential. Although total milkfish production continues to increase, in the Philippines and Indonesia at least, milkfish's traditional share of total aquaculture production in all these places has declined quite dramatically over the last 10 years, and this trend is likely to continue.