Now showing items 1-6 of 6

    • Article

      Methionine requirement of juvenile tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      OM Millamena, MN Bautista-Teruel & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture, 1996 - Elsevier
      An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary requirement of postlarval Penaeus monodon for the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. Shrimp postlarvae (mean weight 21 ± 0.3 mg) were reared in 40-1 fiberglass tanks in a flow-through seawater system. Test diets (37% protein and 360 kcal per 100 g diet) were formulated containing casein-gelatin as protein sources and supplemented with crystalline amino acids to simulate the amino acid pattern in shrimp tissue protein except methionine. The diets contained graded levels of methionine at a range of 0.72–1.12% of the diet or 2.0–3.0% of protein. In diet preparation, the crystalline amino acids were pre-coated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to reduce leaching. Diets were further coated with CMC, cornstarch, and κ-carrageenan to improve water stability and the diet pH was kept at 7.0–7.2 by neutralization with 6N NaOH. Shrimp were fed the diets at 25–30% of their biomass thrice daily. At termination of the feeding experiment, various parameters including growth, survival, and feed conversion efficiency were determined and nutritional deficiency signs noted. The methionine requirement was determined from the relationship between weight gain and dietary methionine level using the broken-line regression method. The requirement of P. monodon postlarvae for methionine was 0.89% of the diet or 2.4% of protein. In a diet containing 0.41% cystine, the total sulfur amino acid requirement (methionine + cystine) would be 1.3% of the diet or 3.5% of protein. This requirement is slightly lower than the methionine level present in shrimp tissue protein.
    • Article

      Quantitative dietary requirements of postlarval tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, for histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan 

      OM Millamena, MB Teruel, A Kanazawa & S Teshima - Aquaculture, 1999 - Elsevier
      The quantitative requirements of postlarvae Penaeus monodon for essential amino acids were determined through a series of feeding experiments. Test diets contained casein–gelatin as natural proteins supplemented with crystalline L-amino acids (CAAs) at levels based upon the tissue amino acid profile of postlarvae tiger shrimp. Each set of experimental diets contained graded levels of the test amino acid in a range below and above those found in shrimp muscle protein. The dietary CAA mixture was pre-coated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and the diets were additionally bound with CMC, corn starch, and K-carrageenan to prevent leaching of amino acids and other nutrients. P. monodon postlarvae, PL20, mean body weight of 20 mg, were randomly distributed to 30-l fiberglass tanks at a density of 10/tank and each group was fed a particular diet for 56 days. A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine if there were any significant differences in weight gain, survival, and feed conversion among the dietary treatments for each experiments. Regression analysis of the weight gain responses against dietary amino acid levels was used to estimate the amino acid requirements. The optimum dietary requirements for essential amino acids, in percent of the diet, were: 0.8% histidine, 1.01% isoleucine, 1.7% leucine, 1.4% phenylalanine, and 0.2% tryptophan. Expressed as percent of the dietary protein, the requirement values were: 2.2% histidine, 2.7% isoleucine, 4.3% leucine, 3.7% phenylalanine, and 0.5% tryptophan. This information is crucial in optimizing growth and feed efficiency and in developing cost-effective diets for P. monodon.
    • Article

      Relationship between diet composition and growth rate of the zoeal and mysis stages of Penaeus japonicus Bate 

      CT Villegas & A Kanazawa - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1978 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Diets containing Chaetoceros gracilis plus Artemia nauplii artificially prepared diet, Diet-B, and two commercial feeds Tapes and mysid meals, were fed to larvae of P. japonicus. Highest survival rate was obtained when larvae were fed with Diet-B. The results show that the early larval stages of P. japonicus can be reared on artificially prepared diets. Since the chemical composition of the diet is known, it can be used as supplemental data for larval feeding development and nutritional requirement studies for the early larval stages of Penaeus japonicus and/or other penaeids. Information is tabulated on feeds and feeding rates used, composition of the artificial diet, fatty acid composition of lipids of the different diets, and of the sterols of the different diets.
    • Article

      Requirements of juvenile marine shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) for lysine and arginine 

      OM Millamena, MN Bautista-Teruel, OS Reyes & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture, 1998 - Elsevier
      Feeding experiments were conducted using amino acid test diets to determine the dietary requirements of juvenile Penaeus monodon for lysine and arginine. Two sets of the test diets were prepared. The natural protein was supplied by casein and gelatin. Crystalline l-amino acids were added to provide an amino acid profile similar to shrimp muscle protein except for the test amino acid. One set of experimental diets contained graded levels of lysine at 1.18–3.28% of the diet and another set contained arginine at 0.6–3.0% of the diet. The amino acid mixture was pre-coated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and diets were further bound with CMC, cornstarch, and K–carrageenan to prevent leaching losses of amino acids. Shrimp postlarvae, PL20, with mean weight of 21±0.5 mg, were randomly distributed at 10 shrimp per tank in 40-l fiberglass tanks and reared on the diets for 50–56 days. Growth, survival and feed conversion efficiency were determined at termination of feeding trials and signs of nutritional deficiency noted. Lysine and arginine requirements were determined from relationships between weight gains and dietary lysine and arginine levels as analyzed by the broken-line regression method. The requirement of juvenile P. monodon for lysine was estimated to be 2.08% of the diet or 5.2% of dietary protein while the requirement for arginine was 1.85% of the diet or 5.3% of dietary protein. This information is crucial in formulating cost-effective practical diets for juvenile tiger shrimp.
    • Article

      Threonine requirement of juvenile marine shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      OM Millamena, MN Bautista, OS Reyes & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      The threonine requirement was determined for juvenile marine shrimp. Penaeus monodon postlarvae, PL20, were stocked in 30-1 fiberglass tanks at ten shrimp per tank arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. They were fed amino acid test diets (40% protein) with casein-gelatin as natural protein sources and supplemented with crystalline L-amino acids to simulate the amino acid profile of shrimp muscle except for threonine. Graded levels of threonine were incorporated to obtain 0.72, 1.0, 1.28, 1.56, 1.84, and 2.12 g per 100 g diet or 1.8, 2.5, 3.2, 3.9, 4.6, and 5.3% of dietary protein. Relationship of weight gain with dietary threonine level was analyzed by the quadratic regression method to derive the threonine requirement. Results showed that the quantitative threonine requirement for growth is 1.4% of the diet or 3.5% of dietary protein. This requirement for growth conforms with the threonine level in the shrimp muscle.
    • Article

      Valine requirement of postlarval tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      OM Millamena, MN Bautista-Teruel & A Kanazawa - Aquaculture Nutrition, 1996 - Wiley-Blackwell
      The valine requirement of juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, was determined. Shrimp postlarvae, PL20, with a mean weight of 14 mg, were randomly distributed in 36 oval 40-L capacity fibreglass tanks at 10 shrimp per tank in a flow-through seawater system and reared for 8 weeks. Postlarvae were fed amino acid test diets containing 400 g kg−1 protein with casein and gelatine as intact sources of protein. Crystalline L-amino acids were supplemented to simulate the amino acid profile of the shrimp muscle except valine. Valine was added in graded levels to obtain 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22 g kg−1 of the diet or 18, 25, 33, 40, 48 and 55 g kg−1 of dietary protein. At termination of the feeding experiment, growth and survival were determined and nutritional deficiency signs noted. The relationship between weight gain and dietary valine level was analysed by the broken-line regression method to derive the valine requirement. The dietary valine requirement of Penaeus monodon postlarvae was found to be 13.5 g kg−1 of the diet or 34 g kg−1 of dietary protein. This value was lower than the level found in the shrimp tissue.