Now showing items 1-2 of 2

    • Conference paper

      The effect of various levels of protein, fat carbohydrates and energy on growth, survival and body composition of Chanos chanos fingerlings. 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In EA Huisman, N Zonneveld & AHM Bouwmans (Eds.), Aquaculture Reseach in Asia: Management Techniques and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Asian Seminar on Aquaculture Organized by IFS, 14-18 November 1988, Malang, Indonesia, 1989 - Pudoc
      Rice and fish are staple foods in the Philipines as well as in other parts of Southeast Asia, where calorie/protin malnutrition is a serious probem. Milkfish, (Chanos chanos) is well-liked by the masses and, therefore, ti could be a good source of protein and calories. In traditional culture, milkfish yield is rather low and limited to the carrying capacity of the culture ponds (Lim et al., 1979). To increase production through intensive culture, a diet to supplement the natural food in the ponds is needed. However, practical diet formulation is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the nutritional requirements of milkfish. The present study was carried out to determine optimum protein, fat, carbohydrate and energy levels for milkfish fingerlings using growth, survival, and body composition as parameters for determining the effectivity of the diets. The response surface analysis was explored graphically using a "freehand" technique to search for optimal diets with respect to dietary levels of protein, fat and carbohydrates.
    • Conference paper

      Mineral requirements of Penaeids 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In Advances in Tropical Aquaculture: Workshop at Tahiti, French Polynesia, February 20 - March 4, 1989, 1990 - Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer
      Series: Actes de Colloque 9
      Marine shrimps absorb minerals from their aquatic environment aside from the minerals that come from the food they eat. Thus, the dietary requirement of shrimps for certain minerals will depend on the amounts and availability of these minerals in the aquatic environment. Dietary sources for growth may be necessary due to losses during moltings.

      Most of the dietary studies for mineral requirements have been done under laboratory conditions with purified or semi-purified diets and hardly any information is available under practical culture conditions. Most published data for mineral requirements are for juvenile Penaeus japonicus. There are few data for P. monodon, P. californiensis, P. merguiensis, P. aztecus.

      Calcium and phosphorus are the minerals that have been studied the most. These two have been found to be related to problems of soft-shelling in P. monodon. Apparently calcium and phosphorus requirements are within the range of 1 to 2%. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet is also an important factor in the efficient utilization of both minerals. It seems that a 1 :1 ratio provides for good growth. Phosphorus deficiency results in reduced growth while lack of magnesium brings about decreased growth, poor survival and reduced feed efficiency in P. japonicus. Iron toxicity has also been observed in P. japonicus.

      It might not be necessary to include some minerals in the diet of penaeids.