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Changes in the steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels during the gametogenic cycle of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon ET Quinitio, A Hara, K Yamauchi & S Nakao -
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 1994 - ElsevierThe levels of estradiol-17β, and progesterone in the hemolymph, ovaries and hepatopancreas, in relation to the vitellogenin levels of captive female Penaeus monodon, were determined during the gametogenic cycle. Estradiol in the hemolymph was detected in fully mature shrimps (Stage 5) only. The ovarian estradiol levels were quite variable but showed no significant differences in the mature (Stages 4 and 5) and spent stage (Stage 6). In the hepatopancreas, a peak in estradiol level was noted in mature shrimps (Stage 5). The progesterone levels in the hemolymph were high in shrimps with mature ovaries (Stages 4 and 5) while those with immature ovaries (Stages 2, 3 and spent) were low or undetectable. The progesterone levels in both ovaries and hepatopancreas were significantly high in mature shrimps. The vitellogenin levels increased simultaneously with ovarian development and reached maximum levels during the final stage of vitellogenesis. A decrease in levels was observed after egg release. The correlation between the levels of progesterone and vitellogenin may indicate a positive effect of this steroid on vitellogenin production.
ArticleET Quinitio, A Hara, K Yamauchi, T Mizushima & T Fuji -
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - B: Comparative Biochemistry, 1989 - Elsevier1. A female specific protein (FSP, vitellogenin) in hemolymph and its related ovarian protein (vitellin) of Pandalus kessleri were studied by means of electrophoretical and immunological procedures. 2. The vitellin was purified from vitellogenic ovaries using hydroxylapatite, DEAE cellulose and Sepharose 6B columns, consecutively. 3. The vitellin had a molecular weight of approximately 560 kD and was composed of two subunits, 81 and 110 kD, respectively. 4. The vitellogenin concentrations in the hemolymph increased as vitellogenesis in the ovarian oocytes advanced and dropped markedly after the release of mature eggs.
Seminal plasma composition, sperm motility, and milt dilution in the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) Ionic composition of the seminal plasma and factors that initiate sperm motility in the freshwater Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus, were examined to develop an artificial seminal plasma (ASP) that can be used to dilute milt. The optimum ratio of milt:ASP that can reversibly activate the sperm and milt–ASP:ovulated eggs that will result in high fertilization rates were further determined to minimize the number of males to be sacrificed during artificial insemination. Seminal plasma of C. macrocephalus contained 17.8±0.1 mM/l potassium, 164.4±0.6 mM/l sodium, 8.4±0.0 mM/l calcium and 1.6±0.0 mM/l magnesium, and had an osmolality of 269.0±6.4 mOsm/kg, and pH of 7.8±0.2. Sperm motility was highest and longest in all electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl2, KCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) solutions of 200 mOsm/kg. Catfish sperm were motile in all isotonic NaCl–KCl solutions, and were reversibly activated in the ASP (143 mM NaCl, 30 mM KCl, 8 mM CaCl2, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 mM HEPES) solutions of pH 6.4–9.4. Altogether, these results suggest that sperm motility in C. macrocephalus was mainly initiated by a decrease in osmotic pressure, rather than ions and pH. High fertilization rates (89–94%) were observed when 10 μl milt, diluted with 1000 μl ASP, was activated with 5 ml of 0.6% NaCl (198.24 mOsm/kg) to fertilize 5 or 10 g of ovulated eggs. Results obtained from the present study provide information on sperm physiology that will lead to more efficient gamete management, and hopefully, an increase in the yield of catfish fry in the hatchery.
Serum steroid hormones, reproductive and larval performance of the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) during the off- and peak reproductive seasons JD Tan-Fermin, CL Marte, S Adachi & K Yamauchi - In JYL Yu (Ed.), Recent Advances in Comparative Endocrinology. Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the Asia and Oceana Society for Comparative Endocrinology, May 14-18, 2000, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C, 2001 - Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.Serum samples were taken from gravid female catfish 0 to 24 h after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) and pimozide (PIM) to monitor the serum steroid hormone levels during the off seasons (February) and the peak of the natural breeding period (August). A parallel study was also conducted to compare egg production, fertilization, hachuring and larval rates upon yolk resorption from spawn’s of hormone-treated fish. Serum E2 levels were significantly different only with varying times after injection (PI); a marked increase occurred at 13 h, but the elevation was higher in fish induced to ovulate during the peak (16.8 ng/ml) than off season(7.7ng/ml). Hormone-treated fish showed higher serum testosterone (T) levels during the peak season (17-23 ng/ml) than those injected during the off season (10-20 ng/ml) at 4-12 h PI. Serum 17¤, 20ß-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one (DHP) levels og hormone-treated fish during the off season were only about half the level (0.29 and 0.52ng/ml) of those treated with the same hormones during the peak season (0.54 and 0.9 ng/ml) at 8 and 12 h PI, respectively. Initial eggs size was larger in fish induced to spawn in August (1.54 mm) than in fish induced in February (1.49 mm). All fish ovulated when induced to spawn during the peak of the natural breeding period, but ovulation rate was only 60% when were injected during the off season. Egg production, fertilization, hatchery and survival rates were similarly much higher when gravid females were induced to spawn in August (88 eggs/g body weight, 97%, 73%, and 95%, respectively) than those spawned in February (20 eggs/g BW,36%, 20%, and 47%, respectively). Results indicate that more eggs and of better quality, higher levels of T and DHP were produced during the peak season.