Now showing items 1-20 of 20

    • Conference paper

      Antibacterial chemotherapy in aquaculture: review of practice, associated risks and need for action 

      V Inglis - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This paper briefly reviews the use of chemicals to prevent and treat bacterial diseases in aquaculture, and provides a detailed summary of the current state of knowledge on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in fish and shellfish. The topics covered include mechanisms of resistance, resistance of bacterial fish pathogens, resistance to antibacterial agents associated with use in aquaculture, and factors causing selection of resistant variants. Emphasis is placed on avoiding and solving problems related to bacterial resistance in aquaculture, and recommendations on antibiotic usage in aquaculture are made.
    • Conference paper

      Aquaculture in the Philippines 

      SM Aypa - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture is regarded as the most promising source of protein food in the years ahead. Milkfish and Nile tilapia are the major fishes now produced but groupers, sea bass, rabbitfish, red snappers, carps, and catfishes are grown by some farmers. The tiger shrimp is still the most important cultured crustacean, but white shrimps and mudcrabs also have great potential. Oysters and mussels are produced in considerable amounts. Mariculture of the seaweed Eucheuma is now a well established industry, and the pond culture of Gracilaria for agar extraction is beginning to take off.
    • magazineArticle

      Bacterial diseases in tiger shrimp culture in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial diseases of penaeid shrimps: an Asian view 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In M Shariff, JR Arthur & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II : Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 25-29 October 1993, Phuket, Thailand, 1995 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      In the past 5 Yr, bacterial diseases have become limiting factors in penaeid culture systems, their effects becoming directly proportional to the growth of the industry in terms of severity and imoact. Although eight bacterial genera have been associated with these problems, only two groups accur quit commonly: filamentous bacteria and vibrios, with the latter beibg more impact. Many Vibrio species have been reported in penaeids: Vibrio alginolyticus, V.cholerae (non-01), V. damsela, V. fluvilis, V.nereis, V. splendidus, V. tubiashii, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. harveyi. Interestingly, the last three species, all non-sucrosefermenters, are the most dominat. Diagnosis has beed done mostly through conventional bacteriology and histopathology, although development and use of more rapid detection methods like indirect fluorescent antibody technique, monoclonal antibodies, and other enzyme immunoassays are in demand to improve monitoring and survellance. Because of the conflict between the use of chemotherapeutants and the evironmental hazards that go with it, many researches are now poised on non-medicinal approches to solve bacterial diseases problems.
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial exoskeletal lesions of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. 

      GD Lio-Po & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, 17-22 April 1989, Tokyo, Japan, 1990 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Tank- and pond-reared Penaeus monodon with exoskeletal lesions were examined. The incidence rate was up to 36% for broodstock in concrete tanks and to 20% for pond-reared prawns. The increase in disease incidence was related to prawn age or duration of culture. Bacterial isolation yielded mostly Vibrio spp. Pathogenicity was tested on healthy P. monodon juveniles by a combination of injury and exposure to the test bacteria. Cumulative mortality was 60% within 72 hours in stabbed prawns and 20-40% after 96 hours for superficially-cut prawns. Growth of the bacteria in culture was active in 0.5-8% NaCl and at 12-40 degree C. In-vitro, test isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; and resistant to erythromycin, furanace, kanamycin and streptomycin.
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial studies of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) outbreak in the Philippines 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & JL Torres - In RJ Roberts, B Campbell & IH MacRae (Eds.), ODA Regional Seminar on Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome, 25-27 January 1994, Bangkok, Thailand, 1994 - Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute
      Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) is a disease of wild and cultured freshwater fishes in Asia and IndoPacific (Roberts et al., 1986; Lilley et al., 1992). In the Philippines, the first confirmed EUS outbreak is reported in Laguna de Bay in December 1985 to February 1986 (Llobrera and Gacutan, 1987). Since then, EUS has been observed annually in the lake during the coldest months of the year - December to February or March. The disease has spread throughout Luzon, affecting wild and cultured fishes in lakes, ponds, paddy fields, and rice fish systems (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 1992). In September to December 1990, EUS was recorded among brackishwater and marine fishes from a lagoon in northern Luzon (Reantaso, 1991).

      Although EUS is recognized as a regional problem, no definite primary causative agent has been established. Virus, fungi, bacteria, and parasites have been isolated in EUS-positive fishes, but none has been implicated as the primary pathogen (Roberts et al., 1993a & 1993b). Among the bacteria associated with EUS, Aeromonas hydrophila is consistently isolated in affected fishes from the Philippines (Llobrera and Gacutan, 1987; Torres et al., 1990; Lio-Po et al., 1992). This paper reviews the work done on the bacterial aspects of EUS in the Philippines.
    • Conference paper

      Establishment of method managing aquaculture environmnets to allow sustainable production. 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In Studies on Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2001 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
    • Book chapter

      Infectious diseases of warmwater fish in fresh water 

      GD Lio-Po & LHS Lim - In PTK Woo, DW Bruno & LHS Lim (Eds.), Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture, 2002 - CAB International
    • Conference paper

      New developments in marine prawn disease research in south east Asia. 

      MCL Baticados - In SH Cheah & S Thalathiah (Eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture. Proceedings of a Seminar Organized by the Malaysian Fisheries Society and the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, 17 August 1989, Kuala Lumpur, 1992 - Malaysian Fisheries Society. Occasional Publication No. 6
      Researches on marine shrimp diseases for the past three years centered primarily on the diagnosis and control of viral and bacterial infections as well as nutritional, toxic and environmental diseases. Diagnostic techniques developed or adopted recently for prawn viruses include the ELISA technique for detecting baculoviruses, acridine orange fluorescence, eosin flourescence and in vitro culture of the Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) on lymphoid organ-derived monolayer culture. Studies have been conducted on the identification, pathogenicity and chemical control of bacteria causing luminous vibriosis and shell disease. Investigations on non-infections diseases such as the chronic soft-shell syndrome, blue shrimp disease and aflatoxicosis elucidated the factors responsible for the development of these diseases. Current research on marine shrimp diseases, other related problems and recommendations are discussed.
    • Article

      Occurrence and pathology of Penaeus monodon baculovirus infection in hatcheries and ponds in the Philippines. 

      MCL Baticados, CL Pitogo, MG Paner, LD de la Peña & EA Tendencia - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Samples from Penaeus monodon hatcheries (2-3 day old larvae or Zoea 1 to 34 day old post larvae or PL34) and ponds (15 to 159 days old in the pond) were histologically examined for the presence of eosinophilic occlusion bodies in hypertrophied nuclei of the hepatopancreas which is indicative of P. monodon baculovirus infection. The earliest stage found infected in the hatcheries was PL3. Infected shrimp from ponds had slow growth rates and generally pale yellow to reddish brown hepatopancreata. The infection was also characterized by the necrosis and degeneration of the hepatopancreatic tubules with secondary bacterial invasion.
    • Conference paper

      Recent trends in fish diseases in Japan 

      H Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Losses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
    • Conference paper

      Shrimps 

      FD Parado-Estepa - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      During 1988-1991, research at the Aquaculture Department of SEAFDEC on the shrimp Penaeus monodon has been directed towards a) the development of captive broodstock, b) the refinement of hatchery and grow-out techniques, c) the development of diets for the various stages of culture, and d) the prevention and control of diseases. Biochemical, morphological, and histological characterization of the male and female reproductive systems were conducted to provide basic information for the development of techniques for pond-reared broodstock. Studies on the refinement of hatchery techniques included determination of the environmental and feeding requirements of larvae and postlarvae to serve as basis for the improvement of management practices. Refinement of grow-out techniques included studies on the physiological response of this species to vital environmental factors and studies on the role of natural food organisms during culture. Nutrition studies have resulted in the formulation, testing, and improvement of diets for broodstock, larvae and postlarvae, juveniles, and subadult shrimps. Methods of prevention and control of the luminous bacterial disease, chronic soft shell syndrome, aflatoxicosis, monodon baculovirus (MBV) infection, and other relevant diseases have been investigated through the identification of causative agents and bioassay of possible chemo-therapeutants.

      Studies to improve larval rearing of alternative shrimp species such as P. indicus, P. merguiensis, and P. japonicus have likewise been pursued. Nutritional requirements of the white shrimp species were evaluated to develop suitable formulated feeds for the different culture stages.
    • Conference paper

      Siderophore detection among bacteria associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) 

      EM Leaño, GD Lio-Po & LA Dureza - In M Shariff, JR Arthur & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II : Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 25-29 October 1993, Phuket, Thailand, 1995 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Sixteen isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila andone isolate each of Aeromonas sp. n., Aquaspirillum sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Streptococcus sp., isolated from normal, apparently normal and epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)-affected fish were screened for siderophore production at 20, 25, 30, and 37oC. results showed that siderophore production of A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. n. isolates decreased with increasing temperature. Among A. hydrophila isolates, 81.2% produced siderophore at 20oC, 50% at 25 and 30oC, and only 37.5 at 37oC. In contrast, Aquaspirillum sp., Pseudomonas ep., and Streptococcus sp., showed higher production of siderophore at 30 and 37oC.
    • Article

      Studies on the causative organism of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) fry mortalities I. Primary isolation and pathogenicity experiments. 

      G Lio-Po & E Sanvictores - Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 1987 - Taylor & Francis
      Oreochromis niloticus fry reared in 50 L aquaria at a density of 1,000 fry manifested mortalities of 15% daily. Afflicted two-week old fry exhibited darker pigmentation, emaciation lesions, and surface swimming. Parasites and fungi were not observed upon direct microscopic examination of affected fry. Bacterial isolations from weak fry yielded the predominant growth of Pseudomonas sp. Subsequent pathogenicity experiments showed that Pseudomonas sp. is pathogenic at a dose of 10 super(7) cells/ml rearing water but not at a does of 10 super(6) cells/ml rearing water. By and large, the presence or absence of feed during infection did not affect virulence of the test bacteria. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests revealed sensitivity of Pseudomonas) sp. to Chlortetracycline, Colistin, Kanamycin, Oxytetracycline and Polymyxin B, and resistance to Nitrofurantoin and Sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim.
    • Conference paper

      Studies on the efficacy of Sarafin® (sarafloxacin hydrochloride) on vibrios associated with vibriosis in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) 

      RV Pakingking Jr. - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture IV. Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 22-26 November 1999, Cebu City, Philippines, 2002 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
    • Conference paper

      Studies on the sources of luminescent Vibrio harveyi in Penaeus monodon hatcheries 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, LJ Albright, MG Paner & NA Suñaz - In M Shariff, RP Subasinghe & JR Arthur (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture I. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 26-29 November 1990, Bali, Indonesia, 1992 - Asian Fisheries Society, Fish Health Section
      One of the major problems in the otherwise highly successful Penaeus monodon hatchery industry in the Philippines is the occurrence of luminescent bacterial disease due to Vibrio harveyi. The possible sources of the bacteria were investigated. Eggs within the ovaries of stage III and IV wild-caught and ablated female P. monodon harbour no bacteria. On the other hand, the midgut contents of these spawners, as well as of pond-reared juveniles, contained numerous luminescent bacteria. Plate counts of the exoskeleton from all sampled females revealed that V. harveyi is a minor component of the exoskeleton-associated flora. Scanning electron microscopy of the exoskeleton showed no significant attached populations. The bacterial loads of Chaetoceros calcitrans, a marine diatom, and Artemia salina nauplii were likewise estimated. C. calcitrans did not harbour V. harveyi at any phase of its growth. Twenty-four-hour-old A. salina appeared to have no resident V. harveyi, but its culture water contained small populations of these bacteria. These data show that the main source of the luminescent bacteria is the midgut contents of the mother, which are shed into the water almost simultaneously with the eggs during spawning.
    • Conference paper

      The use of chemicals in aquaculture in India 

      SC Pathak, SK Ghosh & K Palanisamy - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A review of the use of chemotherapeutants and other chemicals and drugs in Indian aquaculture is presented. A large number of products are used for various purposes such as soil and water treatments, disinfectants, piscicides, herbicides, organic and inorganic fertilizers, feed additives, therapeutants, and anesthetics. Farm management techniques for the use of chemicals are discussed, as are the hazards posed by, and impacts resulting from chemical use. Other approaches to disease prevention (crop holiday, pond preparation, regulating stocking density, effluent treatment systems) are considered, and national regulations on the use of chemicals in aquaculture and current research being conducted in India are summarized. Recommendations for the improved use of chemicals in Indian aquaculture are provided for farmers, government and aquaculture institutions, the chemical industry, regional and international agencies, and research institutions.
    • Conference paper

      The use of chemicals in aquaculture in Indonesia 

      H Supriyadi & A Rukyani - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture systems in Indonesia have developed toward intensive culture. As a result of intensification of fish culture, increased outbreaks of disease have occurred. Various chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics and other chemicals have been widely used for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in fish and shrimp farms. Antibiotics such as oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, neomycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, prefuran and enrofloxacin are used in the treatment of bacterial diseases. Other chemicals such as malachite green oxalate, potassium permanganate, formalin, methylene blue, chlorine and teaseed have been used for the treatment of various diseases. Organic fertilizers, such as chicken manure, and inorganic fertilizers like urea and trisodium phosphate are often applied by shrimp farmers to improve primary productivity in ponds. Bacterial products with trade names like “Multi bacter,” “Enviro star” and “Super NB” have recently been used by shrimp farmers to decompose organic matter resulting from excessive feeding. Feed additives such as vitamin C, “Protec Plus,” and “Super Embak” are used for disease prevention.
    • Conference paper

      The use of chemicals in aquaculture in Taiwan, Province of China 

      IC Liao, JJ Guo & MS Su - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture in Taiwan has a history of more than three centuries. To satisfy consumer preferences, a wide variety of aquatic species, 71 in 1993, are being cultured in Taiwan. It is difficult to control diseases when many species are cultured and stocking densities are high. At present, it is important to manage the use and application of chemotherapeutants effectively. Many aquatic animal diseases fall under the category of potentially curable illnesses. These include diseases of bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and environmental etiologies. This paper summarizes the chemicals used in aquaculture, farm management practices, alternative disease prevention methods, national regulations, and the current research on chemical use for aquaculture in Taiwan.
    • Conference paper

      Will microbial manipulation sustain the ecological balance in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries? 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, LJ Albright & MG Paner - In TW Flegel (Ed.), Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology : Proceedings to the special session on shrimp biotechnology, 5th Asian Fisheries Forum, 11-14 November 1998, Chiengmai, Thailand, 1998 - National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      A shift in preferred methods employed to contain bacterial diseases in the hatchery phase of shrimp culture has resulted largely from the unsuccessful control by and deleterious effects of chemotherapy. Manipulation of hatchery microbial ecology has gained popularity, but for successful implementation, this niche-filling approach requires a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of bacterial diseases in the hatchery. This study examined the responses of Vibrio harveyi populations, (associated with luminescent vibriosis in shrimp larvae) to various physico-chemical factors and various hatchery components. Results showed that V. harveyi had a wider range of tolerance to environmental parameters than larvae of Penaeus monodon, such that control measures based on manipulation of these parameters might not be feasible. However, it was evident from the results that there were components in the shrimp hatchery environment that could be manipulated to control high populations of V. harveyi. The natural microflora of seawater, as well as the microbial flora associated with the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans negatively affected the survival of V. harveyi in experimental mixed cultures. The successful manipulation of such benign microbial components to compete with and exclude potential pathogens is necessary to sustain ecological balance in the shrimp hatchery environment.