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    • Conference paper

      Developments in sustainable shrimp farming in Southeast Asia 

      H Kongkeo & M Phillips - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In Southeast Asia, shrimp aquaculture has been practiced for many years and is a traditional coastal farming activity in several countries. The recent trend has been towards more intensive forms of culture resulting in a number of problems. However, experiences in the region suggest that shrimp farming can be socially, environmentally and economically sustainable and contribute to the production of food and alleviation of poverty in coastal areas, provided that appropriate management practices are adopted. Technical, economic, social and environmental issues have to be considered in the development and implementation of such management practices.

      In the light of serious shrimp disease problems which have affected shrimp farming worldwide, and various environmental and social interactions, some have concluded that shrimp farming development in the region has not been completely sustainable. This paper provides background on the major sustainability issues and management strategies which need to be considered in the development of sustainable shrimp aquaculture. Good farm management practices such as farm siting, construction and design, seed quality, feed and fertilizer, water management, sediment management, shrimp health management practices, and efficient use of inputs and resources should be voluntarily followed and monitored. In order to maintain social harmony and minimize environmental impacts, integration of aquaculture into coastal area management as well as appropriate zoning, policies, regulations and legislation should be allowed for a balanced coastal development. Furthermore, active cooperation among farmers and their involvement in policy setting and planning for coastal development can contribute to better understanding of key issues and promotion of better management practices.

      Fortunately, awareness and experience in sustainable management of coastal shrimp aquaculture in Southeast Asia is growing, and a number of local, national and regional initiatives are being taken to develop and implement improved management practices. At international levels, the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), adopted in 1995 as a global inter-governmental consensus on the promotion of sustainable fisheries and aquaculture developments, provides a framework of basic principles and norms which all stakeholders concerned with shrimp culture can use as a common platform for better understanding, consultation and collaboration. Examples of recent efforts by NACA, in cooperation with FAO and other interested partners, in the implementation of the CCRF are given, and suggestions are provided to further promote the sustainable development of shrimp culture. A number of researchable issues on sustainable shrimp aquaculture are also reiterated for discussion in this seminar-workshop.
    • Conference paper

      Responsible aquaculture development for the next millennium 

      AGJ Tacon & UC Barg - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      With the world population doubling in size from 3 to 6 billion people from 1960 to 1999 and currently growing at 1.33% per year (or an annual net addition of 78 million people), and expected to reach 7.3 to 10.7 billion by 2050 (with 8.9 billion considered most likely), there are growing doubts as to the long term sustainability of many traditional agricultural food production systems in being able to meet the increasing global demand for food. Nowhere is this more critical than within many of the world s developing countries, and in particular within those Low-income Food-deficit countries (LIFDC ; currently representing over 62% of the world s population), which are net importers of food and lack sufficient earnings to purchase food to cover their basic dietary needs. Of the multitude of agricultural food production systems, aquaculture is widely viewed as being an important potential candidate capable of contributing to reductions in the shortfall in the terrestrial food basket. Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic plants and animals, has been the fastest growing food production sector for over a decade. Total global production from aquaculture more than tripled from 10 million metric tons (mmt) in 1984 to over 36 mmt in 1997, and production grew at an average compound rate of 1 l% per year since 1984. In contrast to traditional livestock food production systems, the bulk of global aquaculture is realised within developing countries (89.6% total) and LIFDCs (80.6% total).

      Despite its good prospects and apparent potential for continued growth, the aquaculture sector has not been without its problems and critics. In particular, there have been concerns raised related to deficiencies in existing aquaculture legislation and planning methods, the use of certain farming practices, issues of resource use efficiency, disease treatment and control, environmental degradation, social welfare, and employment opportunities, etc. Although the majority of these are not unique to the aquaculture sector, it is imperative that these issues be addressed and resolved if the sector is to emerge into a major global food production sector in the next millennium.

      In addition, the present paper reviews the origins and salient features of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), and in particular of Article 9 of CCRF concerning aquaculture development. An overview is also presented of ongoing and planned initiatives concerning the implementation of the code. In particular, the paper attempts to consider the existing socioeconomic conditions of the majority of aquaculture producing countries within the Asian region, and the real basic need of identifying affordable and practical solutions to aid the development of the sector. Particular emphasis is placed on the need of government to provide an enabling economic and legislative environment and umbrella for the sustainable and responsible development of the sector, and the need for increased collaboration between the private and public sector organizations, and government engaged in all stages of the aquaculture development process.