Now showing items 1-20 of 29

    • Article

      Cage culture of Oreochromis aureus and Oreochromis niloticus hybrids in Laguna Lake, Philippines. 

      AM Bautista, MH Carlos, BO Acosta & PB Valera - Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 1988 - Taylor & Francis
      A reciprocal cross of male Oreochromis aureus and female Oreochromis niloticus were made to produce the hybrids stocked in cages in Laguna Lake, Philippines with and without feeding. The growth rates of the hybrids from the cross of female O. aureus and male O. niloticus were better than the other hybrids. From the first to the sixth culture months.

      The hybrids in terms of bulk weight per cage and percentage survival did not differ significantly. However, the average weight per fish was higher in the hybrids of O. aureus (female) x O. niloticus (male) than that of that of the original cross. The stocking density of 40/m3, supplemental feeding did not influence growth compared to the control.
    • Article

      Carbohydrate, nitrogen and protein content of kinetin-treated Azolla pinnata var. imbricata plants. 

      RA Tabbada - Natural and Applied Science Bulletin, 1988 - College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines
      The influence of various levels of kinetin on growth, carbohydrate, nitrogen, and protein content of Azolla pinnata var. imbricata plants cultured in a nitrogen-free 40% Hoagland’s solution under greenhouse conditions was investigated. Kinetin concentration of 0.10, 1.0 and 5.0 ppm significantly enhanced fresh matter yield during a two week period. The carbohydrate content increased in plants subjected to 0.10 and 1.0 ppm kinetin. The significant increase in the nitrogen and protein levels of whole plants grown in the presence of 0.01, 1.0 ppm kinetin would enhance its nutritive quality as fish feed. Kinetin at 10 ppm decreased yield as well as carbohydrate, nitrogen and protein content.
    • Article

      Culture experiments on the harpacticoid copepod, Tisbintra elongata Mori, and evaluation of that species as a food organism for milkfish larvae 

      S Yamasaki & JT Canto Jr. - Memoirs of Faculty of Fisheries Kagoshima University, 1980 - Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University
      The mass culture of the harpacticoid copepod, Tisbintra elongata, indigenous to Panay Island were conducted, feeding them on several kinds of food materials. Salinity tolerance as physiological parameter was also examined. At the same time their efficiency as food for milkfish larvae was evaluated.

      The highest density of 10.5 individuals/m/ was obtained in copepods fed on rice bran and fermented fish solubles at rates of 0.125 to 0.25 and 0.16 mg/indiv./day respectively. The provision of shelter as habitat was also supplementary for growth. This species of copepod was found to be euryhaline, and could grow to high densities in waters hypersaline to their natural habitat.

      Statistically, no significant difference of growth was observed between the milkfish larvae fed on this species and Artemia nauplius. However, comparatively stable results were obtained using Tisbintra as food. In this rearing of milkfish larvae, those larvae whose sizewas 12.3 to 13.5mm in body length were considered to be just prior to morphological change.
    • Article

      Dietary crude protein requirement of Tilapia nilotica fry 

      CB Santiago, M Bañes-Aldaba & MA Laron - Kalikasan: The Journal of Philippine Biology, 1982 - University of the Philippines at Los Baños
      Tilapia fry were stocked at three per liter in wooden tank compartments or glass aquaria filled with 50 or 35 l of fresh water in three separate feeding trials. The fry were fed isocaloric practical diets containing 20, 25, 30, and 35% crude protein at 15% of fish biomass daily for seven weeks in the first tow trials. Another set of diets containing 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50% crude protein were fed to fry for eight weeks in trial 3.

      Although treatment means were not significantly different (P< 0.05), weight gains of the fry in trials 1 and 2 were related directly to increasing crude protein levels up to 35%. Weight gain in trial 3, however, was significantly high (P < 0.05) at 35% protein level. Moreover, maximum increases in total length and most efficient feed conversions were invariably attained at 35% protein. Higher protein levels gave much poorer growth. Survival rate at 35% protein was significantly high (P < 0.05) compared to 20% (trial 1) or 30% (trial 2) protein level. In trial 3, survival at 35% protein was not significantly different from all other treatments. Maximum growth, best feed conversion, and high survival were attained with the 35% protein diets.
    • Article

      Duration of feeding and indirect selection for growth of tilapia 

      CT Villegas & RW Doyle - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Duration of spontaneous feeding was observed at three times each day in a laboratory population of nine juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Growth of the fish was measured as change in length and weight, and also as uptake of 14C-labelled glycine by isolated scales. Duration of the first morning feeding was highly correlated with all measures of growth and was independent of initial size. Later feedings were not correlated with growth. Selection on feeding duration could be used to select indirectly for growth rate; this might be a valuable procedure where individuals in the population are not exactly the same age (i.e., where size-at-age is an inaccurate measure of growth).
    • Article

      Effect of different stocking combinations on growth, production and survival of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal) and prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) in polyculture in brackishwater ponds 

      A Eldani & JH Primavera - Aquaculture, 1981 - Elsevier
      Milkfish (Chanos chanos) and prawn (Penaeus monodon) were stocked in 500 m2 earthen ponds from 12 November 1978 to 15 March 1979 at the following combinations: 2000 milkfish fingerlings per ha (treatment I); 2000 milkfish fingerlings plus 4000 prawn juveniles per ha (treatment II); and 2000 milkfish fingerlings plus 8000 prawn juveniles per ha (treatment III), with three replicates per treatment.

      Highest combined net milkfish and prawn production was obtained in treatment III with 492.1 kg/ha followed by treatment II with 404.1 kg/ha, and treatment I (milkfish only) with 280 kg/ha. Differences in combined net production between treatments III and I and between treatments II and I were statistically significant at the 5% level. Average net production of milkfish alone was also highest in treatment III followed by treatment II and treatment I, although differences were not significant. Average net production for prawn was also better in treatment III than in treatment II but the difference was not significant. However, mean weight of prawn was higher in treatment II compared to treatment III. Average survival rates were high for milkfish in all treatments ranging from 90 to 96%, but low for prawn at around 50% for both treatments. There was no significant difference in survival rates of milkfish among treatments and of prawn between treatments II and III. The competition index between milkfish and prawn at the given stocking combinations was negative indicating a positive, advantageous influence of prawn on milkfish production.
    • Conference paper

      Effects of dietary carbohydrate, lipid and energy on the growth, feed efficiency, and tissue composition of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry 

      MT Trono-Legiralde - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The utilization of dietary carbohydrate and lipid as energy sources for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry and various protein:energy ratios were investigated in a 2x3x3 factorial feeding experiment. Semi-purified diets containing two protein levels (28.9 and 37%) and three levels of lipid (4.26, 5.93 and 6.95%) and carbohydrate (42,48 and 53%) to give different total energy levels were fed to bighead carp fry (48.5 ± 3.5 mg) for 8 weeks.Growth of fry fed diets with 37% protein was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that of fry fed diets with 28.9% protein level. An increase in dietary lipid from 4.26 to 6.95% depressed growth (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency (FCE) at varying levels of protein and lipid, although their increments resulted in a decrease in FCE. Increase in dietary protein significantly decreased (P < 0.01) protein efficiency ratio (PER) while increase in dietary carbohydrate significantly decreased (P < 0.05) FCE and PER. Bighead carp fry fed diets containing 3131 and 3470 kcal metabolizable energy/kg and P:E ratio of 92 and 107 mg protein/kcal had the best overall performance. However, the 37% protein diet with approximately 4470 kcal metabolizable energy produced maximum growth. Growth was better with diets containing dietary lipid level of 4.26% and carbohydrate level of 42%. Tissue lipid increased significantly (P < 0.01) with an increase of dietary lipid and carbohydrate. However, inclusion of the highest level of both components in test diets decreased tissue lipid. Tissue protein was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in fry fed high protein diets and low levels of lipid and carbohydrate. Tissue protein, moisture and ash were inversely related to tissue lipid. Survival (%) increased (P < 0.01) with the increase of dietary protein and carbohydrate. Increase of dietary lipid did not significantly affect survival rates of bighead carp fry.
    • Oral presentation

      The effects of stocking densities on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei in cow manure-enriched ponds. 

      CS Lee, JN Sweeney & B Richards - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Ecuadorian Penaeus vannamei were stocked in eight dirt ponds (approximately 163 m2) at four different types of density, i.e., 5 shrimp/m2, 10 shrimp/m2, 15 shrimp/m2, and 20 shrimp/m2. The initial body weight ranged between 1.1 and 3.8 g. No commercial feed was given to the shrimp. The only input to the pond was 30 kg of cow manure/week. Shrimp were sampled either weekly or bi-weekly for body weight measurements. Water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, DO and turbidity were recorded twice daily; nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate) and BOD were measured twice weekly. The chemical composition of the cow manure was analyzed. After 14 weeks' experiment, the shrimp were harvested, weighed and counted. Survival and total yield were compared among treatments.

      The results showed negative correlation between stocking density and growth. The weekly growth of shrimp was between 0.7 and 1.0 g. There was no relationship between stocking density and survival. Survival averaged 68%. The most suitable stocking density should be judged by profit. However, the total yield of shrimp was higher in the higher stocking density.
    • Article

      An evaluation of formulated diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings 

      CB Santiago, OS Reyes, MB Aldaba & MA Laron - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1986 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Nine practical diets were formulated and prepared as dry pellet crumbles. These were fed to two batches of Nile tilapia fingerlings (0.753g initial mean body weigt for trial I, and 0.961g for trial II) at 10% of fish biomass daily for eight weeks in glass aquaria or wooden tanks. Diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 contained 20% crude protein (CP), diets 5 and 6 had 25% CP and diets 7, 8 and 9 had 30% CP.

      Mean weight gains were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatments in trial I and in trial II. There were also significant differents in weight gains of tilapia fingerlings fed diets of the same protein level. Diets with higher protein content did not necessarily produce better growth. Irrespective of the protein level, diets containing 18% or more fish meal (diets 3, 6, 7 and 8) gave higher weight increases compared to those containing 0 and 5% fish meal (diets 1, 2, 4, 5 and 9). Diets with ipil-ipil leaf meal or copra meas as sole or major protein source gave the lowest growth response. Of the nine diets, diet 6 produced the highest weight gain followed closely by diets 7 and 3 in both trials. Diets 6, 7 and 3 contained fish meal, soybean meal, copra meal and rice bran, among others. Feed conversion values were also better for these diets.
    • Article

      An evaluation of three annelids as feed ingredients in formulated diets for juvenile Penaeus monodon 

      F Piedad-Pascual - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1985 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      The nutritive value of two species of earthworms, Eisenia foetida and Eudrilus euginae and the marine annelid, Nereis sp. in P. monodon juvenila diets was determined in two separate experiments. Percentage weight gain and survivla were higher with diets containing Eisenia foetida compared to those of diets with Nereis sp. Diets containing dried worm meal were also better compared to those with frozen worms incorporated in the "wet" form. Incorporation of earthworms at 10% level in the diets improved growth and survival when compared to a control diet. When 30% of Eudrilus euginae was used to replace fish meal in the diet, weight gain and survival of animals were higher compared to those of diets with fish meal.
    • magazineArticle

      Filipino engineer makes big strides in freshwater prawn culture 

      MB Surtida - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Fry-to-fingerling production of Tilapia nilotica in aquaria using phytoplankton as natural feed 

      JB Pantastico, C Espegadera & D Reyes - Kalikasan, The Journal of Philippine Biology, 1982 - University of the Philippines at Los Baños
      Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of phytoplankton as natural feed in fry-to-fingerling production of Tilapia nilotica . In the first experiment, growth and survival rates of fry given a sustained supply of algae increased considerably over the control fed with rice bran. In the second experiment, T. nilotica were grown in "green" water with phytoplankton concentrations adjusted to the following densities (cells/ml): high, 150-175 x 10 super(3); moderate, 90-120 x 10 super(3); and low, 50-60 x 10 super(3). Increasing the algal densities in the rearing medium enhanced growth of fry. Highest weight increments were obtained with high and moderate phytoplankton concentrations.
    • Conference paper

      Growth and external reproductive parameters in pond-reared Penaeus monodon. 

      JH Primavera & RV Caballero - In PM Aliño (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second National Symposium in Marine Science, 5-7 November 1992, Mindanao State University, Tawi-tawi, Philippines, 1994 - University of the Philippines, Marine Science Institute
      Pond-reared Penaeus monodon males and females were sampled regularly over a 4 month period of length and weight measurments to the body and external reproductive organs; joining of the petasmata and the presence of sperm in the spermatophores and thelyca were also noted. Astrong linear relationship exists between body weight and length parameters, and between size of thelycum/petasma and carapace length (CL). Both the unification of petasmal endopodites and sperm presence in the spermatophores in males were first observed at Day 121 from stocking (CL 26.4 mm) while sperm was first noted in the thelycum of females at Day 125 (CL 28.6 mm). Male P. monodon with unified petasmata. In general, size were not significantly different between males and females over the culture period.
    • Oral presentation

      Growth and productivity of juvenile banana prawns, Penaeus merguiensis in natural and laboratory systems. 

      DJ Staples, DJ Vance & DS Heales - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Growth and survival of Penaeus merguiensis juveniles were measured over four years in the Norman River estuary, south-eastern Gulf of Carpentaria. Growth in carapace length for the first 8-9 weeks after settlement was essentially linear and averaged 1.2 mm/week in summer at 29.5°C and 0.45 mm/week in winter at 19.5°C. A comparison of different cohorts under varying temperatures and salinities indicated that growth was temperature- but not salinity-dependent. Survival of newly settled postlarvae varied seasonally and was highest in spring (October-November).

      In the laboratory, a study of moulting rate and moult increment at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C demonstrated that the optimal temperature for growth was 25-30°C. Survival of juveniles was also highest at intermediate temperatures. Effects of salinity and food ration amounts are discussed.
    • Article

      Growth and survival of grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) larvae fed free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus at first feeding 

      OS Reyes, MN Duray, CB Santiago & M Ricci - Aquaculture International, 2011 - European Aquaculture Society
      The free-living nematode, Panagrellus redivivus, was tested as live food for grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae during the first feeding stage. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the acceptability of the free-living nematodes in grouper larvae at first feeding, the optimum nematode density and the response of the larvae to nutritionally enriched nematode. All experiments were conducted in 200-L conical tanks filled with 150-L filtered seawater and stocked at 15 larvae L−1. Duration of feeding experiments was up to day 21 (experiment 1) and 14 days (experiment 2 and 3). Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia (experiment 1) and Brachionus plicatilis alone (experiment 2 & 3) was used as the control treatment. Observations indicated that the grouper larvae readily fed on free-living nematodes as early as 3 days posthatching, the start of exogenous feeding. Optimum feeding density for the larvae was 75 nematodes ml−1. The enrichment of cod liver oil or sunflower oil influenced the total lipids and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids of P. redivivus, which in turn influenced those of the grouper larvae, however, growth and survival of the larvae were not affected (P > 0.05). The results from this investigation showed that the nematode, P. redivivus, can be used as first live food for grouper larvae from the onset of exogenous feeding until they could feed on Artemia nauplii.
    • Article

      Growth and survival of milkfish (Chanos chanos), seabass (Lates calcarifer) and rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) larvae reared at the same density in different sized tanks 

      CB Estudillo, MN Duray & ET Marasigan - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Growth and survival of the larvae of milkfish (Chanos chanos), seabass (Lates calcarifer) and rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) in 40, 200 and 500 liter rearing tanks were evaluated at day 14. Milkfish larvae survived better (46%) in 500 l than in 200 l (7%) tanks. All larvae died on day 6 in the 40 l tanks. Growth was better in the 200 l tanks than in the 500 l tanks. The survival rate of the seabass larvae was significantly different in the 40 l (47%), 200 l (61%) and 500 l (75%) tanks, but growth was highest in the 40 l tanks. Rabbitfish larvae had the highest survival in 500 l tanks (7%) but the same growth in all tank sizes.

      The optimum tank size may vary for different fish species. However, small containers are more convenient to use because they require less manpower, are easily manipulated and more cost- effective.
    • Article

      Growth of juvenile milkfish Chanos chanos in a natural habitat 

      S Kumagai, TU Bagarinao & A Unggui - Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1985 - Inter Research
      A population of juvenile milkfish, C. chanos (Forsskaal) was studied in a small mangrove lagoon in Naburut Island, central Philippines. Several size groups of milkfish occurred in the lagoon as a result of its periodic connection with the sea. Body-weight to fork-length relation was: log W = - 5.2991 + 3.2388 log L, similar to that of pond-cultured specimens. In Naburut lagoon, juvenile milkfish take in primarily blue-green algae, as well as mangrove and seagrass debris, diatoms and detritus. The condition factor of fish caught during the day from May to Nov. stayed constant, indicating that lagoon conditions for growth in terms of food did not change markedly during the year. The monthly size-frequency distribution shows that juvenile milkfish in the lagoon grew at a rate of 7 to 9 mm wk super(-1) in 1979. Compared with pond-cultured specimens, their growth rate was lower during the first month but higher during the second month in the nursery. The limited area and depth of Naburut lagoon probably set the limit to the size of juvenile milkfish; these can be sustained there to just 150 to 180 mm fork length.
    • Conference paper

      Growth, molting, food ingestion, and absorption in juvenile Macrobrachium rosebergii in relation to dissolved oxygen 

      JA Llobrera & WH Neill - In N De Pauw, E Jaspers, H Ackefors & N Wilkins (Eds.), Aquaculture - A Biotechnology in Progress. Proceedings of the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '87, 2-5 June 1987, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989 - European Aquaculture Society
      Growth, molting, food ingestion, and absorption in juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 7.7ppm dissolved oxygen (DO), 29°C, and 0.5°/oo salinity. DO levels were maintained by bubbling nitrogen gas against water flowing down through PVC gas-exchange columns. Prawns (0.58 to 0.60g dry weight) were grown individually in 4 l glass chambers for 40 days and fed in excess twice daily. In a separate experiment, food ingestion and absorption in prawns (0.66 to 1.36g dry weight acclimated to the tour DO levels were determined gravimetrically. Growth rate was significantly reduced only at 2.5ppm DO. The mean growth rates, as percentage dry weight increase per day, were 0.76, 1.56, 1.81, and 1.76% at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 7.7ppm DO, respectively. Molting was not inhibited at the tour DO levels tested. Intermolt periods of all prawns ranged trom 8 to 18 days with a mean of 13.6 days. Food ingestion was reduced at 2.5ppm DO, but apparent absorption of dry matter was independent of oxygen at the tour levels tested. Mean ingestion rates, as percentage of dry body weight were 5.51, 8.85, 8.05, and 10.35%. The mean apparent absorption efficiency of all prawns was 87.95%. This study showed that juvenile M. rosenbergii requires about 3.5ppm DO to grow optimally in the laboratory. Reduction in growth of M. rosenbergii at DO levels below 3.5ppm is due in part to a reduction in food intake and not to changes in absorption efficiency and molting frequency.
    • Article

      The length-weight relationship, food habits and condition factor of wild juvenile milkfish in Sri Lanka 

      T Bagarinao & K Thayaparan - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Wild juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos) were obtained from Negombo lagoon in September 1984. Thirty-one specimens (92–186 mm FL) had a fork length-body weight relationship of log W = −5.6083 + 3.2598 log L. These fish were caught in the early morning and had empty guts. The mean condition factor (K) was 8.7. The intestine length to fork length ratio (I) was 3.7. Two large specimens (245 mm and 340 mm FL) caught around mid-day from the ocean off Negombo had full guts. Food was mostly blue-green algae, diatoms and detritus, with a number of copepods and nematodes. These fish had K values of 11.7 and 13.6 and I values of 8.1 and 8.5. The age and the month of spawning of these fish were back-calculated using known milkfish growth rates. It seems that in Sri Lanka, milkfish spawn from January to at least November.
    • Article

      Occurrence and pathology of Penaeus monodon baculovirus infection in hatcheries and ponds in the Philippines. 

      MCL Baticados, CL Pitogo, MG Paner, LD de la Peña & EA Tendencia - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Samples from Penaeus monodon hatcheries (2-3 day old larvae or Zoea 1 to 34 day old post larvae or PL34) and ponds (15 to 159 days old in the pond) were histologically examined for the presence of eosinophilic occlusion bodies in hypertrophied nuclei of the hepatopancreas which is indicative of P. monodon baculovirus infection. The earliest stage found infected in the hatcheries was PL3. Infected shrimp from ponds had slow growth rates and generally pale yellow to reddish brown hepatopancreata. The infection was also characterized by the necrosis and degeneration of the hepatopancreatic tubules with secondary bacterial invasion.