Now showing items 1-19 of 19

    • Conference paper

      Aquaculture development in Japan 

      S Mito - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Along with the growth of the national economy, aquaculture in Japan has steadily developed in recent years. From 1976 to 1985, production of cultured fish and shellfish increased by 28% from 927 thousand mt to 1184 thousand mt. The contribution of aquaculture to total domestic production constituted 22% in value and 9.7% in weight for 1985. Increase in aquaculture production may be attributed to stronger domestic consumer demand for high grade fish products.

      The principal species for culture include sea bream (Pagrus major), black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schelegi), yellowtail (Seriola guinqueradiata), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubrives), Kuruma ebi (Penaeus japonicus), abalone (Nordicus discus), blood ark shell (Scapharca broughtonii) and edible seaweeds (Porphyra, Undaria, Laminaria). Rapid strides in improved culture techniques have been attained in seed production, grow-out, harvest and disease control in these various species.

      Present trend show increasing reliance on cultured rather than fishery products to meet market demand. In some species, e.g., coho salmon, rainbow trout, oyster and laver, production depends entirely on culture. In other species, production by aquaculture contribute a significant portion to total production. However, to maintain the balance between supply and demand for certain principal aquaculture products, controlled production is now being practised for certain species. In addition to these trends, technical improvements in aquaculture has led to a decrease in the number of management units and area of facilities devoted to production.

      In the future, greater efforts will be directed to diversify the species cultured to suit consumer preference. Emphasis will also be placed on improving taste and texture of cultured products. New types of feed that will not pollute areas around the culture facilities will be developed. Remarkable achievements in biotechnology will also be applied in aquaculture to improve seed quality.

      Parallel with developments in aquaculture, Japan is exerting greater efforts to propagate fishery resources in coastal waters through stock enhancement activities. This is aimed at establishing a multiple fish and shellfish propagation system in the seas surrounding Japan to maintain or increase production from fishery resources.
    • Conference paper

      Biological hazard possibly produced by aquaculture and its control 

      Y Inui - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Blooms of Neterocapsa circularisquama, a novel dinoflagellate, have been causing mass mortality of both wild and cultured shellfish in embayments at the western part of Japan since 1988. Physiological and epidemiological studies suggest that the alga has been partly dispersed with the movement of shellfish in aquaculture activities.

      A recent outbreak of an epizootic iridovirus in red sea bream (Pagrus major) has caused extensive damage to marine fish culture in Japan. A research group at the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA), collaborating with prefectural fisheries research laboratories and an R&D company, clarified the etiology and developed a diagnostic method and a commercial vaccine.

      Penaeid acute viremia (PAV), a synonym of white spot syndrome, caused catastrophic loses in kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) culture in Japan. An epidemiological study of the research group at NRIA and the prefectural fisheries research laboratories strongly suggests that the causative virus was newly introduced to Japan from imported shrimp seeds for aquaculture. The group clarified the etiology and established diagnostic methods. Based on their studies, NRIA proposed a protocol to check the virus during larval culture and before seedlings are shipped.
    • Conference paper

      Biotechnological researches at the Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station in Japan 

      T Kato - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Biotechnological studies have been conducted in 46 Prefectural Experimental Stations in Japan in 1991. In 41 of these, research focused on chromosome set manipulation including triploidy for sterilization and gynogenesis for sex control. Practical application of biotechnology for culture of each species is the main interest because each prefecture has its own project for promoting the local fisheries industry. Therefore, the commodities being studied are of commercial importance comprising of about 40 species.The culture production of Japan in 1988 totaled 1,426,000 tons, 95% of which consisted of 10 species. Biotechnology is not widely used since most seeds are not from hatcheries, but from the wild. Recently, however, promising results on the study of sex determination mechanism in the Japanese flounder have been adopted for actual seed production. This has attracted attention as an approach to mass production of all-female seedlings.
    • Conference paper

      Diagnostic and preventive practices for WSSV in Japan 

      K Mushiake - In Y Inui & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings … Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      White spot syndrome (WSS), considered equivalent to PAV (penaeid acute viremia) in Japan, has become the most serious problem not only in the farming industry but also in hatcheries for sea ranching of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus. The prevalence of WSSV (white spot syndrome virus), the causative agent of WSS, was examined in wild kuruma prawn broodstocks by nested PCR (polymerase chain reaction). As a result, WSSV was detected at the highest prevalence (10.1%) in the ovary of female prawn. This result indicates that spawners are sources of infection. In 1997, brooders were pre-screened using PCR to detect WSSV before these spawned. WSSV was noted to occur in postlarvae obtained from brooders caught between July and August. In 1998 and 1999, eggs were selected based on WSSV detection by PCR from receptaculum seminis of spawned broodstock. Consequently, WSSV did not occur in their offsprings in both years. These results strongly indicate that selection of eggs based on PCR results is a practical way of controlling WSSV in hatcheries.
    • Conference paper

      An ecological approach to mariculture of shrimp: Shrimp ranching fisheries. 

      Y Uno - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Mariculture production in Japan has grown recently to nearly one million tons per year. Mariculture production in the shallow coastal waters of Japan mainly consists of eight species of finfish, six species of shellfish, and three species of algae.

      Kuruma shrimp culture techniques are highly developed. Nevertheless, only 1,800 tons of kuruma shrimp can be produced yearly. There is a demand for this species but culture grounds have become limited and there is not enough space to raise shrimp. In 1980, 600 million postlarvae were produced but one-half had to be released to the sea. The released shrimp that survived and grew have formed a new basis for the "Sea Ranching Fisheries" industry. The trial releases of postlarvae have proven that sea ranching of shrimp can be successful.

      To strengthen the foundation of sea ranching fisheries, there must be future research on ecological impact, as well as on physico-chemical water parameters. The life cycle, feeding habits, and predators of the shrimp must also be studied. Recent releases in Hamana-ko Lagoon, Shizuoka Prefecture, made by the research group of the Hamana-ko Substation of the Shizuoka Prefectural Fisheries Research Station have demonstrated the possibilities of sea ranching. This report discusses the research studies obtained at Hamana-ko Lagoon and the main problems of the use of this sea ranching method in mangrove swamp areas of Southeast Asia.
    • Conference paper

      Experience on common carp mass mortality in Japan 

      M Sano, T Ito, J Kurita, K Yuasa, S Miwa & T Iida - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The mortality rate among common carp for food reared in net pens in Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan, in Ibaraki Prefecture, increased from early October 2003 and koi herpesvirus (KHV) was detected in the affected fish by the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA) in late October using PCR methods of Gilad et al. (2002) and Gray et al. (2002). The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan officially announced the first occurrence of KHV disease in Japan. In late October 2003, the water temperature of Lake Kasumigaura was 16-180C and the fish losses were severe, particularly in market-sized carp. The apparent symptoms of affected fish were presence of mucus-like substance on the body surface, sunken eyes, and pale and necrotic gills, which were similar to those reported by Hedrick et al. (2000). Approximately 1,200 metric tons of common carp cultured in the lake were lost by mid-November. Prior to this, however, infected carp cultured in Lake Kasumigaura had already been transferred to farms, wholesalers, restaurants and game fishing facilities. Consequently, the infection spread to other areas in Japan. Independent of the outbreak in Lake Kasumigaura, a massive carp loss of over 10 thousand fish, the cause of which was initially diagnosed as columnaris disease, occurred in some rivers and a lake in Okayama Prefecture from late May to mid-July 2003. In November, the NRIA detected KHV DNA by PCR from samples of the diseased fish stored in a freezer. This demonstrated that KHV was present in Japan before late May 2003. By the end of 2003, KHV was detected in carp from 23 out of 47 prefectures in Japan. No occurrence of the disease was observed during the winter period. However, as the water temperature increased in spring of 2004, KHV reappeared in the area where the disease had been previously recorded, and also in new places. In many of the facilities that experienced KHV outbreak in 2003, the disease was not observed by June 2004 because all carp had been removed together with other fish species and the facilities were disinfected thoroughly after the outbreaks. From January to the end of May 2004, KHV infections were reported in 24 of 47 prefectures in Japan.
    • Conference paper

      Government regulations concerning the use of chemicals in aquaculture in Japan 

      MN Wilder - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In Japan, fisheries research activity is of a very diversified nature and is overseen by the national and prefectural governments. Regarding the use of chemicals in aquaculture, various regulations exist to protect the safety of cultured aquatic animals intended for human consumption. Under Japan’s Drug Laws, certain materials are designated as “medical products” for use in humans and animals, and their usage is strictly regulated. This paper introduces aspects of this legislation as relevant to the aquaculture industry and discusses how they are actually applied on the level of operation. Prefectural fish disease centers and extension services engage in the actual supervision of the use of such designated chemicals. In reference to government research structure, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries maintains 29 national research institutes, nine of which are fisheries institutes directly under the Fisheries Agency. The prevention and treatment of fish disease is an important research theme, and programs are being implemented, especially at the National Research Institute of Aquaculture. An auxiliary organ of the Fisheries Agency, the Japan Fisheries Resource Conservation Association operates educational and training programs for employees of prefectural centers and extension services whereby individuals receive certification as fish health specialists.
    • Conference paper

      Intensive culture and feed development in Penaeus japonicus. 

      K Shigueno - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The economic feasibility of shrimp culture with high productivity of over 10 ton/ha/crop is still under evaluation in some research institutes. However, there is one exception. In a limited area in Japan, there are 63 tanks that are actually in operation and are commercially productive. One of the trials to grow Penaeus japonicus is herewith introduced to represent the intensive culture of penaeid shrimp. Tank design, feeding, growth, survival, water management, cost analysis and disease are described. In addition, an illustration of successful semi-intensive culture in earthen ponds is shown to help explain how to intensify and stabilize production.
    • Article

      An investigation of enzyme and other protein polymorphisms in Japanese stocks of the tilapias Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii 

      ZU Basiao & N Taniguchi - Aquaculture, 1984 - Elsevier
      Samples of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii were collected from the hatcheries of Osaka Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station and Shiga Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, Japan, respectively. The samples were used for screening polymorphisms in 13 enzymes, skeletal muscle proteins and hemoglobins by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Among 35 loci examined, 12 loci for the 10 enzymes, sarcoplasmic protein and hemoglobins were polymorphic in O. niloticus and 2 loci for 2 enzymes were polymorphic in T. zillii. The observed numbers of phenotypes for respective loci agreed well with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The genetic basis for each polymorphism is discussed. This investigation provides basis information on the status of these tilapias in Japan.
    • Conference paper

      Mass larval rearing technology of marine finfish in Japan 

      K Fukusho - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      With economic development and increased demand for high price fish, industrial scale marine finfish culture in Japan was started in 1960-1965 for yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Sustainable supply of wild juvenile and development of floating cage with synthetic fiber net have spurred the culture of nearly 30 species and total production in 1991 is 265 x 103 metric tons (nearly 25% of total aquaculture production). Although salmon ranching had been started in 1888, a national project of ocean ranching was only initiated in 1963 with the present target of 26 species of marine finfish. Ocean ranching aims to increase fisheries resources in coastal sea by stocking hatchery-reared juveniles and preservation of environmental capacity and habitat. Therefore, mass production of marine finfish juveniles is being done for the intensive culture in net cage and for stocking coastal sea in Japan.

      Nearly 200 million juveniles are produced by ocean ranching centers (14 national, 49 prefectural, 21 city and town, 53 fishermen's association). The number of target fish is about 60 species (excluding salmon and trout). The main species produced are red sea bream, Pagrus major, flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, puffer, Takifugu rubrapes, rockfish, Sebastes shlegeli, and mud dab, Limanda yokohamae. More than one million juveniles of these species are produced at one hatchery or ocean ranching center per one fry production season. About 70% of total production of juveniles consist of red sea bream and flounder. Red sea bream could be used to introduce mass larval rearing technology in Japan since its mass production is well developed. The focus of the present paper is the present status and short history of the development in larval rearing technology for red sea bream.
    • magazineArticle

      Netcage culture in SEA 

      ET Aldon - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Overview of seafarming and searanching technology in Japan 

      S Umezawa - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In 1989, artificial seed production was attained in 37 species of fishes, 16 species of Crustacea, 25 species of shellfishes, and 9 species of other fishery animals in Japan. Eighty species of fishery animal seed, including natural and artificial production, were released in natural fishery grounds during this year. The total mariculture production was 1.3 million tons. This composed of 18% fish, 35% shellfish, 46% seaweed, and 1% of other fishery animals.In recent years, Japan achieved some success in Seafarming and searanching projects. Among these are searanching of Japanese scallop in northern Japan and acoustic habituation system of red sea bream. Searanching of striped jack using artificial seed is also explained.
    • magazineArticle

      Oyster-mussel farming in SEA, Japan, Cuba, and Scotland 

      E Aldon & R Buendia - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in aquaculture in Japan 

      K Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
    • Conference paper

      Recent trends in fish diseases in Japan 

      H Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Losses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
    • Conference paper

      Status of resource enhancement and sustainable aquaculture practices in Japan 

      K Okuzawa, T Takebe, N Hirai & K Ikuta - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Contrary to the rapid increase in the world aquaculture production, fish production in Japan has been decreasing slightly due to the decreasing trend in seafood consumption of Japanese. Aquaculture production is approximately 20% in terms of yield, and 30% in terms of market value, of the country s total fisheries production. In Japan, about 80 species are targeted for release for sea ranching and resource enhancement purposes. The local governments (prefectures) are the main driving force in resource enhancement programs. Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, and scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensisis are examples of successful resource enhancement in Japan. Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and red seabream, Pagrus major, represent intensely released fish species in Japan, and around 10% of the total catch of those species are estimated as released fish. The low price of products and increasing costs of production, such as costs of fuel and fish meal, are the major pressing issues in coastal fisheries and aquaculture in Japan. For aquaculture, the guarantee of food safety, minimization of environmental impact, and management of natural stock populations are highly necessary in order to achieve the sustainability of the industry. For resource enhancement, budget constraint is the major issue, and possible impact on natural stocks caused by released fish should also be considered. The Government of Japan (GOJ) is implementing some measures to rectify unstable business practices of aquaculture and to improve production techniques in aquaculture. For resource enhancement, the GOJ encourages cooperation among local governments (prefectures) for seed production and release of certain targeted species in order to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of stock enhancement. In Japan, traditionally, the purpose for release was mainly sea ranching, namely harvesting all released animals. Nowadays, actual resource enhancement, i.e. the integrated release program including resource management and development of suitable nursery for released fish, is encouraged by the government. The evaluation and counter measures for the negative impact of stocked fish on genetic diversity of the wild population are also implemented. Recently, marked progress was achieved in seed production technologies of two important tropical fish species, namely coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, and humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus. These technologies are expected to contribute to the advancement of the aquaculture industry in the South East Asian region.
    • magazineArticle

      Stock enhancement in Japan and Taiwan 

      RIY Adan - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Stock enhancement has been recognized as one of the essential strategies that can sustain and increase the resources of coastal fisheries. It has been practiced for over a century, with more than 100 species released to date in worldwide programs. Among the countries in Asia, Japan and Taiwan have already established the practice of stock enhancement. Details are given of the main species, number or seedstock produced and released in 1996 in Japan. The species released by the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute 1976-1995 are also described.
    • Book | Conference publication

      Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan : proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July 1994 

      TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.) - 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Documents the presentations at ADSEA '94, the 3rd Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. ADSEA '94 includes reviews of the status of aquaculture development in Southeast Asia and Japan and of the researches conducted by Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC/AQD) to contribute to this development. Topics on responsible aquaculture, mollusc and seaweed culture, integrated farming, shrimp culture, diseases, and health management, and transgenic fish were also discussed. It also lists the research areas of 20 or so commodities prioritized for research at AQD for 1995-1997.
    • magazineArticle

      Tuna markets and farming: Japan and Australia 

      E Gasataya - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center