Now showing items 1-20 of 30

    • magazineArticle

      Artificial diet development [for abalone] 

      E Aldon - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1997 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial exoskeletal lesions of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. 

      GD Lio-Po & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, 17-22 April 1989, Tokyo, Japan, 1990 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Tank- and pond-reared Penaeus monodon with exoskeletal lesions were examined. The incidence rate was up to 36% for broodstock in concrete tanks and to 20% for pond-reared prawns. The increase in disease incidence was related to prawn age or duration of culture. Bacterial isolation yielded mostly Vibrio spp. Pathogenicity was tested on healthy P. monodon juveniles by a combination of injury and exposure to the test bacteria. Cumulative mortality was 60% within 72 hours in stabbed prawns and 20-40% after 96 hours for superficially-cut prawns. Growth of the bacteria in culture was active in 0.5-8% NaCl and at 12-40 degree C. In-vitro, test isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; and resistant to erythromycin, furanace, kanamycin and streptomycin.
    • Conference poster

      Carbohydrate requirements of Penaeus monodon juveniles. 

      VR Alava & FP Pascual - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Penaeus monodon juveniles (initial mean weight=0.62 g) were fed semi-purified diets containing 10, 20 and 30% trehalose, sucrose or glucose for eight weeks. Results showed that shrimps fed 20% trehalose gave the highest growth rate. Of the three types of sugars tested, trehalose promoted the best growth rates, followed by sucrose and glucose. When the level of sugar was considered, 20% gave the best growth rate and 30%, the lowest. The type as well as level of sugar greatly affected the body crude protein and body lipid (P < 0.01), while survival was mainly affected by type of sugar alone (P < 0.01). Trehalose and sucrose diets promoted better survival than glucose diets. A negative linear correlation (r = —0.70) between the body crude protein and body lipid was obtained.
    • Conference paper

      Defatted soybean meal and Leucaena leaf meal as protein sources in diets for Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      F Piedad-Pascual & M Catacutan - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum: Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 17 - 22 April 1989, 1990 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Penaeus monodon juveniles, mean weight 0.38 g, were fed 12 practical diets with 30, 20 or 16% Peruvian fish meal, 15 or 35% defatted soybean meal (DSM), 10% Leucaena leucocephala , leaf meal (LM), and 15% shrimp meal with and without vitamins and/or minerals. The diets contained 42-48% crude protein and 11-13% crude fat. The animals were stocked at 10 per fiberglass tank, and reared in 40 aerated seawater in a flowthrough system for 8 weeks. Growth and survival were not affected by the level of DSM but significantly decreased in prawn fed diets with LM. Feed conversion ratios of prawn were better for complete diets than those where vitamins only were added. Poor feed conversion ratios and specific growth rates were obtained when no vitamins and minerals or only minerals were added to the diets.
    • Article

      Diel activity patterns in Metapenaeus and Penaeus juveniles 

      JH Primavera & J Lebata - Hydrobiologia, 1995 - Springer Verlag
      Small (5–10.9 mm carapace length), medium (11–15.9 mm), and large (16–20.9 mm) juveniles of Metapenaeus anchistus, Metapenaeus sp., Penaeus monodon and P. merguiensis were stocked individually in glass tanks provided with sand substrate, sea water, artificial bamboo shelter, aeration and food. The seven activity types (recorded for each shrimp hourly for 24 h) were classified as below (burrowing) or above substrate (swimming, walking, stationary, in shelter, feeding and cleaning). Shrimp juveniles exhibited a strong diel periodicity — emergence and activity at night and burrowing in the day. The chi-square test showed that type of activity (above/below substrate) was associated with period (light/dark). Diurnal burrowing was greater among Metapenaeus than Penaeus; inversely, above substrate activities were more frequent for Penaeus species compared to Metapenaeus. Feeding was the major above substrate and nocturnal activity for M. anchistus, Metapenaeus sp. and P. monodon. Only P. Monodon used the shelter consistently. Frequency of the 7 activity types was dependent on juvenile size for Penaeus, e.g., the preference for shelters shifted to burrowing with increase in size in P. monodon. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of mangrove habitats in providing shelter to penaeids, in particular the mangrove-associated P. monodon and P. merguiensis.
    • Conference poster

      Earthworm, marine annelids and squid as feed ingredients in formulated diets for juvenile Penaeus monodon. 

      FP Pascual - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Earthworm and annelids were incorporated in diets for Penaeus monodon juveniles (mean weight 0.54 g) either in wet or dry form. These protein sources were added in amounts needed to replace 10% of the animal source of protein. Other sources of protein in the diet were shrimp head meal, fish meal, and defatted soybean meal. Diets were computed such that two-thirds of total protein came from animal sources and one-third from vegetable sources. Other components of the diet were rice bran, sago palm starch, cod liver oil and a vitamin-mineral mixture. Another diet, used as maintenance diet, served as control. Postlarvae were randomly stocked at 6 individuals/tank in a flowthrough system with 5 replicates/treatment. Each of the oval fiberglass tanks had three 10-cm diameter PVC pipes for shelter. The prawns were fed 10% of biomass twice daily.

      Although treatment means for percent weight gain were not significantly different, the diet that contained dried earthworm or annelid meal gave higher weight gain than diets containing the wet form. The earthworm diet gave higher weight gain than diets containing annelids. Survival rate also followed a similar pattern as that of weight gain. Shrimp fed earthworm (wet or dried) gave survival rates numerically higher than those fed marine annelids. Shrimp fed the control diet had survival rates lower than those fed earthworm-containing diets but higher than those fed the wet annelid diet.

      In another experiment, earthworm or squid was incorporated in the diet. Survival rates of shrimp with earthworm or squid in the diet were significantly higher than those fed the control. Weight gains were not significantly different from each other. Food conversion was generally low. The drawback in the use of earthworm, annelids and squid is that they are relatively expensive compared to fish meal and shrimp head meal.
    • Conference paper

      Effect of supplemental lecithin and lipid sources on the growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In JL Maclean, LB Dizon & LV Hosillos (Eds.), The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-31 May 1986, Manila, Philippines, 1986 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared in 60-liter fiberglass oval tanks in a flow-through seawater system for 8 weeks to determine the effect of lecithin and type of lipid on growth and survival. Nine isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets consisting of a basal practical diet (40% protein, 10% lipid) with 3 levels of soy lecithin and 3 sources of lipid cod liver oil, crude degummed soybean oil and purified soybean oil were used. Feed was offered twice daily. Percentage weight gains significantly increased as the level of lecithin was increased from 0 to 2% regardless of the lipid source. At all levels of lecithin, survival rates were significantly higher in those fed diets containing crude degummed soybean oil compared to those fed either cod liver oil or purified soybean oil. Lecithin levels and lipid sources did not significantly affect the feed conversion values. The best was that which had 2% soy lecithin with 3.8% crude degummed soybean oil.
    • Oral presentation

      Effect of various levels of squid protein on growth and some biochemical parameters of Penaeus japonicus juveniles. 

      LC Suarez, J Guillaume & AV Wormhoudt - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An unknown growth factor previously suspected in squid meal was found in the protein fraction of squid (Loligo vulgaris). It is clearly different from hydro-alcohol-soluble feed attractants that are also present in squid meal. This squid protein fraction (SPF) improves the growth of Penaeus japonicus juveniles when added either in a semi-purified or in a more complex mixed diet. This growth-promoting effect does not seem to be related to the amino acid composition of SPF. In order to obtain more information on its action, several levels (1.5 to 16.0%) of SPF were added to a mixed diet. The diets were isoproteic (59% D.M.), isolipidic (8.5% D.M.), supplemented with vitamins, cholesterol, glucosamine, etc. They were fed as wet pellets to 3 replicates of 15 shrimp; blue mussel was used as the control. The growth of shrimp increased with the SPF level and attained a plateau above 6%. Body weight was significantly higher than that of the control group at this level. RNA content and RNA:DNA ratio increased with the SPF level indicating that growth was improved more by hypertrophy than by hyperplasy of the cells.

      The hepatosomatic ratio remained unchanged. The assay of two digestive enzymes, proteases and amylases, showed no clear effect of SPF on protease or amylase activities. More experiments are needed to explain the effect of the unknown growth factor of SPF.
    • Conference poster

      Effects of some water-soluble vitamins on the growth of Penaeus monodon juveniles. 

      M Catacutan & A Kanazawa - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The response of Penaeus monodon juveniles (ave. wt.= 0.076 g) in terms of survival and growth rates to vitamin test diets was observed in a 35-day feeding experiment. The prawns were reared in 60-ℓ oval tanks containing filtered seawater in a flowthrough system of ambient temperature and salinity. The treatments consisted of a control (complete vitamin mix), a vitamin-free diet and nine other diets, each lacking one of the vitamins in the mixture. At the end of the feeding trial, the survival rates in all treatments ranged from 80 to 100%, while weight gain ranged from 74 to 40%. Significantly lower weight gains were obtained from choline chloride-free diet (P<0.05) and vitamin-free and inositol-free diets (P<0.01) than from control.
    • Conference poster

      Evaluation of artificial feeds for shrimp (Penaeus monodon) production in brackishwater ponds. 

      NS Tabbu, P Kungvankij, G Taleon, I Potesta & M Bautista - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The experiment was conducted in fifteen 500-m2 brackishwater ponds to determine the response of Penaeus monodon juveniles fed with various artificial diets. Five treatments with three replicates each were: two commercial feeds containing 45% and 40% crude protein (treatments I and II), two experimental diets formulated to contain 35% crude protein (treatments III and IV) and control, without feeding (treatment V). Shrimp were fed twice daily at feeding rates based on shrimp consumption.

      Highest mean harvest weight was attained in treatment I (23.47 g) > III (19.25 g) > II (18.86 g) > IV (11.29 g) > V (9.27 g). Statistical analysis showed that differences in growth were significant at 5% probability level. However, growth in treatments I, II and III are comparable, also growth in treatments II, III and IV. Growth in treatments I, II, III and IV was significantly different from treatment V. Highest mean survival was attained in treatment III (91.82%) > I (88.93%) > II (86.95%) > IV (83.62%) V (82.62%). Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among treatments at 5% probability level.

      Projecting on a hectare basis, mean yield for each treatment was: I (628.37 kg) > II (496.35 kg) per crop in 120 days culture. Good yield was attributed to provision of formulated feeds, use of pumps in addition to tidal change for water exchange and control of predators, and pest eradication through proper pond preparation.
    • magazineArticle

      Grow mudcrab in ponds 

      M Castaños - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1997 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Growth of juvenile milkfish Chanos chanos in a natural habitat 

      S Kumagai, TU Bagarinao & A Unggui - Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1985 - Inter Research
      A population of juvenile milkfish, C. chanos (Forsskaal) was studied in a small mangrove lagoon in Naburut Island, central Philippines. Several size groups of milkfish occurred in the lagoon as a result of its periodic connection with the sea. Body-weight to fork-length relation was: log W = - 5.2991 + 3.2388 log L, similar to that of pond-cultured specimens. In Naburut lagoon, juvenile milkfish take in primarily blue-green algae, as well as mangrove and seagrass debris, diatoms and detritus. The condition factor of fish caught during the day from May to Nov. stayed constant, indicating that lagoon conditions for growth in terms of food did not change markedly during the year. The monthly size-frequency distribution shows that juvenile milkfish in the lagoon grew at a rate of 7 to 9 mm wk super(-1) in 1979. Compared with pond-cultured specimens, their growth rate was lower during the first month but higher during the second month in the nursery. The limited area and depth of Naburut lagoon probably set the limit to the size of juvenile milkfish; these can be sustained there to just 150 to 180 mm fork length.
    • Conference paper

      Growth, molting, food ingestion, and absorption in juvenile Macrobrachium rosebergii in relation to dissolved oxygen 

      JA Llobrera & WH Neill - In N De Pauw, E Jaspers, H Ackefors & N Wilkins (Eds.), Aquaculture - A Biotechnology in Progress. Proceedings of the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '87, 2-5 June 1987, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989 - European Aquaculture Society
      Growth, molting, food ingestion, and absorption in juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 7.7ppm dissolved oxygen (DO), 29°C, and 0.5°/oo salinity. DO levels were maintained by bubbling nitrogen gas against water flowing down through PVC gas-exchange columns. Prawns (0.58 to 0.60g dry weight) were grown individually in 4 l glass chambers for 40 days and fed in excess twice daily. In a separate experiment, food ingestion and absorption in prawns (0.66 to 1.36g dry weight acclimated to the tour DO levels were determined gravimetrically. Growth rate was significantly reduced only at 2.5ppm DO. The mean growth rates, as percentage dry weight increase per day, were 0.76, 1.56, 1.81, and 1.76% at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 7.7ppm DO, respectively. Molting was not inhibited at the tour DO levels tested. Intermolt periods of all prawns ranged trom 8 to 18 days with a mean of 13.6 days. Food ingestion was reduced at 2.5ppm DO, but apparent absorption of dry matter was independent of oxygen at the tour levels tested. Mean ingestion rates, as percentage of dry body weight were 5.51, 8.85, 8.05, and 10.35%. The mean apparent absorption efficiency of all prawns was 87.95%. This study showed that juvenile M. rosenbergii requires about 3.5ppm DO to grow optimally in the laboratory. Reduction in growth of M. rosenbergii at DO levels below 3.5ppm is due in part to a reduction in food intake and not to changes in absorption efficiency and molting frequency.
    • Article

      Identification of postlarvae of the genus Penaeus appearing in shore waters 

      H Motoh & P Buri - Researches on Crustacea, 1981 - Carcinological Society of Japan
      Diagnostic features for the identification of postlarval Penaeus found in the shore waters of the Philippines are described and categorized based on specimens caught from the wild and those hatched and reared in the laboratory.

      Differentiating features for postlarval Penaeus are given which include the relative length of the antennular flagellum, the shape of the rostrum and number of rostral teeth, the antennal spine, the spinules on the dorsal caina of the sixth abdominal segment, and chromatophore patterns.

      Postlarval Penaeus were classified into two species and two groups as follows: (1) P. monodon, larger in size with dense chromatophores, and the long inner antennular flagellum being more than 2.0 times the outer antennular flagellum; (2) P. semisulcatus, the inner flagellum being 1.6 to 2.0 times the outer antennular flagellum, the the absence of chromatophore on the middle portion of the telson and uropods; (3) P. merguiensis group, less pigmented, the inner flagellum being less than 1.6 times the outer flagellum and (4) P. japonicus group, a short rostum, presence of spinules on the dorsal carina of the sixth abdominal segment, and dense chromatophores. The determinations were confirmed by rearing experiments.
    • Conference paper

      Induction of sex inversion in juvenile grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, (Bloch and Schneider) by bi-weekly injections of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone. 

      JD Tan-Fermin, LMB Garcia & ARJ Castillo - In Hormones and the Environment. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at University of Hong Kong, 18-20 December 1989, 1989 - Society for the Study of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Reproduction, University of Hong Kong
      Groupers (Family Serranidae) are protogynous hermaphrodites. Natural sex inversion of different species occurs at 2-11 years of age . The scarcity of wild mature males and the length of time to change sex underline the need to do induced sex inversion studies. In Epinephelus tauvina and E. fario, sex inversion was successfully induced by oral administration of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). This paper reports on the induction of sex inversion of juvenile grouper E. malabaricus using bi-weekly intramuscular injections of MT.
    • Article

      The length-weight relationship, food habits and condition factor of wild juvenile milkfish in Sri Lanka 

      T Bagarinao & K Thayaparan - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Wild juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos) were obtained from Negombo lagoon in September 1984. Thirty-one specimens (92–186 mm FL) had a fork length-body weight relationship of log W = −5.6083 + 3.2598 log L. These fish were caught in the early morning and had empty guts. The mean condition factor (K) was 8.7. The intestine length to fork length ratio (I) was 3.7. Two large specimens (245 mm and 340 mm FL) caught around mid-day from the ocean off Negombo had full guts. Food was mostly blue-green algae, diatoms and detritus, with a number of copepods and nematodes. These fish had K values of 11.7 and 13.6 and I values of 8.1 and 8.5. The age and the month of spawning of these fish were back-calculated using known milkfish growth rates. It seems that in Sri Lanka, milkfish spawn from January to at least November.
    • Conference paper

      Mass larval rearing technology of marine finfish in Japan 

      K Fukusho - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      With economic development and increased demand for high price fish, industrial scale marine finfish culture in Japan was started in 1960-1965 for yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Sustainable supply of wild juvenile and development of floating cage with synthetic fiber net have spurred the culture of nearly 30 species and total production in 1991 is 265 x 103 metric tons (nearly 25% of total aquaculture production). Although salmon ranching had been started in 1888, a national project of ocean ranching was only initiated in 1963 with the present target of 26 species of marine finfish. Ocean ranching aims to increase fisheries resources in coastal sea by stocking hatchery-reared juveniles and preservation of environmental capacity and habitat. Therefore, mass production of marine finfish juveniles is being done for the intensive culture in net cage and for stocking coastal sea in Japan.

      Nearly 200 million juveniles are produced by ocean ranching centers (14 national, 49 prefectural, 21 city and town, 53 fishermen's association). The number of target fish is about 60 species (excluding salmon and trout). The main species produced are red sea bream, Pagrus major, flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, puffer, Takifugu rubrapes, rockfish, Sebastes shlegeli, and mud dab, Limanda yokohamae. More than one million juveniles of these species are produced at one hatchery or ocean ranching center per one fry production season. About 70% of total production of juveniles consist of red sea bream and flounder. Red sea bream could be used to introduce mass larval rearing technology in Japan since its mass production is well developed. The focus of the present paper is the present status and short history of the development in larval rearing technology for red sea bream.
    • magazineArticle

      Mud crab hatchery and nursery operations 

      ET Quinitio - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A brief account is given of mud crab (Scylla spp) farming activities in the Philippines. The expanding market for mud crab is the cause of intensified collection of wild juveniles. To counter the threat to wild population and ensure the sustainability of mud crab farming, there is a need to produce juveniles in hatcheries. Hatchery and nursery operations, and investment costs/returns are outlined.
    • Brochure

      Mudcrab culture 

      Anon. - 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Summarizes the available technologies on mudcrab grow-out - monoculture in ponds, polyculture with milkfish in ponds, monoculture in tidal flats with existing mangroves, and mudcrab fattening. Details on stocking density, some management tips and investment costs are given.
    • Conference paper

      Photoperiod effects on feeding, food conversion, growth, and survival of abalone (Haliotis asinina Linne) during nursery rearing 

      AC Fermin & Buen Shela Mae A. - In A Nateewathana & J Hylleberg (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Congress & Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP), 28 September - 8 October 2000, Kodaikanal, Rameswaram and Tuticorin, Tamilnadu, India, 2001 - Phuket Marine Biological Center
      Juveniles of Haliotis asinina, 10 mm shell length were subjected to four photoperiodic regimes namely, 6L:18D, OL:24D, diffused 12:12D, and ambient light (12L:12D) serving as control. Juveniles were fed fresh seaweed, Gracilariopsis bailinae, in excess amounts throughout the experiment. At the end of a 105-day experiment, juveniles held under ambient photoperiod were significantly bigger and had higher average daily growth rate than the rest of the treatments. Feed conversion efficiency was higher at ambient light than at other photoperiodic regimes. Daily feeding rates at 65-day culture period were similar for all treatments; however towards the end of culture period, feeding rate of abalone at ambient light was lowest compared to the rest of the treatments. Percent survival was significantly higher in animals at ambient light and at 6L: 18D with 99% and 97% respectively, than at other photoperiodic regimes.