Now showing items 1-20 of 21

    • Article

      Clonal production of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in vitro 

      MRJ Luhan & JP Mateo - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2017 - Springer Verlag
      Micropropagation has proven to be a reliable method to mass produce certain crops. This method also has been applied in macroalgae to produce clones for seaweed farming. Protocols for callus production and shoot regeneration from protoplasts have been established for some seaweed species like Kappaphycus alvarezii. Cells and larger tissues, whether in solid or suspension medium, have been used to propagate clones which were later tested for suitability for farming. Although clonal production was successful, the long duration of culture in vitro limits the production process making the growing of Kappaphycus in vitro an expensive technique to produce clones. In this study, K. alvarezii was grown in vitro to develop a more efficient protocol for the production of clones. Small sections of Kappaphycus were grown in suspension for 1 month under the same temperature, light, and salinity. The type of media, source of explants, length of explants, and stocking density that resulted in the highest growth rate and survival rate were determined. Growth rate of K. alvarezii is significantly higher in media with inorganic nitrogen added than in Grund medium or Ascophyllum nodosum medium only. The appearance of shoot primordia as early as 5 days was observed in media with higher nitrogen concentration. Growth rates of explants approximately 3 and 5 mm are significantly higher than 10 mm sections. Shoots develop significantly faster in explants from tips than sections from older branches. Growth rate of K. alvarezii grown at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 s 10 mL−1 of medium is not significantly different. This protocol could significantly reduce the (1) time of culture and (2) cost of plantlets production by not using plant growth regulators and formulated media in vitro. Nursery reared plantlets/propagules for farming would be affordable to the stakeholders for sustainability of seaweed production.
    • Article

      Deep-sea farming of Kappaphycus using the multiple raft, long-line method 

      AQ Hurtado & RF Agbayani - Botanica Marina, 2002 - Walter de Gruyter
      Farming practices of Kappaphycus seaweed planters using the multiple raft, long-line method were assessed in three major cultivation areas of Zamboanga del Sur, Mindanao. Results show that this cultivation method is appropriate in deeper waters (> 10 m deep). Family labor (6–70 years old) is usually used in the selection and preparation of ‘cuttings’, unloading of newly harvested crops and drying of seaweeds, while preparation and installation of the raft, tying of ‘cuttings’ and harvesting, hired labor is needed. Though the multiple raft, long-line method of cultivating Kappaphycus is expensive (PhP 45,742 to PhP 49,785) based on a 500 m2 raft, return on investment (ROI) is high and the payback period is short. Of the three areas assessed, Maasin had the highest ROI (218%), followed by Tictauan Island (212%), and finally Taluksangay (79%). Consequently, the payback period followed the same order. Seaweed farming in these areas showed a tremendous impact on the quality life of the fisher folk and contributed a high revenue to the national economy.
    • Article

      Effect of short-term immersion of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in high nitrogen on the growth, nitrogen assimilation, carrageenan quality, and occurrence of “ice-ice” disease 

      MRJ Luhan, SS Avañcena & JP Mateo - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2015 - Springer Verlag
      Short-term immersion of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in a high-nitrogen-containing medium was tested to increase growth, improve the quality of carrageenan, and decrease “ice-ice” disease occurrence. Tank-reared Kappaphycus were used as explants. Growth, nitrogen assimilation, carrageenan quality, and occurrence of ice-ice disease of enriched (E/N) K. alvarezii were determined. E/N and un-enriched (control) K. alvarezii were planted inside net cages in the sea. Nitrogen assimilation was monitored to determine if nitrogen was incorporated in the tissues after 12 h. Total thallus nitrogen of K. alvarezii doubled after immersion in high nitrogen. Growth rate and carrageenan yield of E/N K. alvarezii were significantly higher than those of the control. Gel strengths of E/N and the control were not significantly different. Ice-ice disease occurrence was significantly higher in the control than the enriched seaweeds. Short-term immersion of K. alvarezii in a high-nitrogen medium before outplanting increased growth rate and decreased the occurrence of “ice-ice”.
    • Brochure

      The farming of kappaphycus 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Introduces the red seaweed Kappaphycus with notes on the type culture systems, the environmental factors required, initial investment needed, and crop management.
    • magazineArticle

      Farming techniques for seaweeds 

      M Castaños & R Buendia - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.
    • magazineArticle

      Farming the seaweed Kappaphycus 

      A Hurtado - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Seaweed farming is the top foreign exchange earner for the Philippines. Kappaphycus constitutes 80% of the Philippine seaweed export. It is sold in both fresh and dried forms; although dried seaweed has a greater demand, fresh seaweed is highly prices in restaurants. The 3 main seaweed products marketed are agar, alginate and carrageenan. A brief outline is given of farming operations and investment costs and returns.
    • Article

      Gathering of economically important seaweeds in Western Visayas, Philippines 

      AQ Hurtado-Ponce, MRJ Luhan & NG Guanzon Jr. - The Philippine Scientist, 1992 - San Carlos Publications
      A survey was conducted in 12 coastal municipalities of Western Visayas, Philippines from March to July 1990 to determine the seaweed gathering practices of fishermen. There were 83 gatherers involved in this small-scale industry, who live below the poverty line and who consider it as the number one minor source of income. Only seaweeds of commercial value are gathered in big volume. There were approximately 114 T year-1 of seaweeds harvested from natural stock with a market value of P414, 950.00 ($14,819.64). The harvest is broken down into 3 main groups: (1) agarophytes, 99.5 T (Gelidiella, Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis), (2) carrageenophytes, 10 T (Eucheuma and Kappaphycus) and (3) table vegetable, 10 T (Caulerpa). An average maximum income of P5,600.00 or $200 gatherer-1 season-1 is derived from seaweed gathering.
    • Conference paper

      Growth with Equity in Mindanao (GEM) Program and the seaweed industry 

      AO Isidro - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Impact of AMPEP on the growth and occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia infestation on two varieties of commercially cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii grown at different depths in the Philippines 

      IAG Borlongan, KR Tibubos, DAT Yunque, AQ Hurtado & AT Critchley - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2011 - Springer
      Two varieties of the carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Tungawan, TUNG; and Giant tambalang, GTAM) from Zamboanga Sibugay, Philippines were used to test the efficacy of Acadian Marine Plant Extract Powder (AMPEP) as source of nutrients for growth, and to determine if applications had any effect on the percent occurrence of an epiphytic infestation of the red alga Neosiphonia sp. at four different depths in the sea. Results showed that the use of AMPEP significantly (P < 0.05) increased the growth rate of both Kappaphycus varieties tested but decreased the percent occurrence of Neosiphonia sp. The percent occurrence of Neosiphonia sp. infection (6–50% at all depths) of both Kappaphycus varieties with AMPEP treatment was significantly lower than the controls (i.e., 10–75% at all depths). Both the growth rate of the cultivated seaweed and the percent occurrence of the epiphytes decreased as the cultivation depth increased. Plants dipped in AMPEP and suspended at the surface had the highest growth rates (i.e., 4.1%, TUNG; 3.1%, GTAM) after 45 days; those without AMPEP dipping had the highest percent occurrence of Neosiphonia infection (viz. 70–75%). The occurrence of Neosiphonia infestation was found to be correlated with changes in irradiance and salinity at the depths observed. The results suggested that both varieties of K. alvarezii used in this study have the fastest growth rate when grown immediately at the water surface. However, in order to minimize damage caused by the occurrence of epiphytic Neosiphonia, K. alvarezii should be grown within a depth range of 50–100 cm. These observations are important for the improved management of Kappaphycus for commercial farming. Furthermore, the use of AMPEP treatments for enhancement of growth and reduction deleterious Neosiphonia sp. infections is encouraging.
    • Conference paper

      National seaweed program 

      MSR Ferrer - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Occurrence of Polysiphonia epiphytes in Kappaphycus farms at Calaguas Is., Camarines Norte, Phillippines 

      AQ Hurtado, AT Critchley, A Trespoey & GB Lhonneur - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2006 - Springer Verlag
      This paper describes the occurrence of an epiphyte infestation of Kappaphycus farms in Calaguas Is. Camarines Norte, Philippines. In particular, percentage cover of ‘goose bump’-Polysiphonia and ‘ice-ice’ disease, and some environmental parameters that influence the thallus condition of Kappaphycus alvarezii in Calaguas Is. were assessed during 3 separate visits and are discussed.

      Commercial cultivation of Kappaphycus at Calaguas Is. began in the early 1990s. After five years of farming, the stock was destroyed by a strong typhoon. The area was re-planted the following year and production increased annually and reached its peak in 1998–1999. However, the following year, the first occurrence of a Polysiphonia epiphyte infestation occurred concurrently with an ‘ice-ice’ disease. Consequently, annual production and the number of seaweed planters declined rapidly, and this situation persists to the present time. This paper highlights the etiological factors and their consequences.

      Results show that farm-site selection is critical for the success of Kappaphycus production. Characteristics of water movement and light intensity in farming areas contributed to the occurrence and detrimental effect of the phenomenon described as ‘goose bumps’: a morphological distortion of the host seaweed due to the presence of a Polysiphonia sp. epiphyte. A strong inverse correlation was observed between the occurrence of Polysiphonia and water movement: areas with low water motion registered a higher % cover (65%) of Polysiphonia than those in more exposed areas (17%). Although ‘goose bump’-Polysiphonia infestation and ‘ice-ice’ disease pose a tremendous problem to the seaweed farmers, the results of this limited assessment provide a useful baseline for future work.
    • Book | Conference publication

      Proceedings of the National Seaweed Planning Workshop held on August 2-3, 2001, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo. 

      AQ Hurtado, NG Guanzon Jr., TR de Castro-Mallare & MRJ Luhan (Eds.) - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Seaweed forming is one of the major livelihoods among coastal communities in the Philippines, particularly to some 180,000 families in the Sulu Archipelago. In 1999, the Philippines exported more than 35,000 tons of dried seaweeds (US$ 44M) making the country the 4th largest producer of seaweeds and 8th largest producer of carrageenan in the world. However, improper post-harvest management (i.e. cleaning; drying by salting or steaming; adulteration of seaweeds with sand, dust, and dirt for added weight; storage; and baling) reduces quality, which eventually dictates the market price. The National Seaweed Planning Workshop was organized by a collaborative effort of SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department (AQD) and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) for the formulation of a Code of Practice for the Seaweed Industry in order to minimize industry malpractices and to sustain its position in the international market. The National Seaweed Planning Workshop invited several seaweed industry associations, and representatives from the government, NGOs and academic and research organizations conducting seaweed research and development to discuss the research and development programs of the different participating agencies, identify and validate problems and concerns of the seaweed industry, and agree on strategies of solving problems in seaweed farming like disease management, post-harvest facilities and research funding. This proceedings documents the National Seaweed Planning Workshop. Hopefully, the contributions would help in the drafting of the Code of Practice in attaining a sustainable seaweed industry.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in seaweed diseases 

      DB Largo - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Seaweed projects funded by PCAMRD 

      CR Pagdilao - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Seaweed R&D Program of Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology 

      OD Tito - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Seaweed research at SEAFDEC/AQD 

      AQ Hurtado - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Book

      Seaweeds of Panay 

      AQ Hurtado, MRJ Luhan & NG Guanzon Jr. - 2006 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This practical book on the seaweeds of Panay, Philippines, acquaints and provides information to members of the academe and research institutions, policy makers, fishermen and businessmen regarding the taxonomy, distribution, ecology and economic importance of these resources. It consists of 4 major parts: (1) Introduction, which reviews the literature, habitat, distribution, morphological structure and reproduction; 2) Classification, which describes the classes to which the seaweeds generally belong; 3) Collection and preservation, which explains the procedure used in treatment of specimens; and, 4) Taxonomic list. A glossary is included, covering technical terms used. All species listed and described in this book are macrobenthic and were collected in Panay and Guimaras Islands.
    • Book

      Seaweeds of Panay 

      AQ Hurtado-Ponce, MR Luhan & NG Guanzon Jr. - 1992 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This practical book on the seaweeds of Panay, Philippines, acquaints and provides information to members of the academe and research institutions, policy makers, fishermen and businessmen regarding the taxonomy, distribution, ecology and economic importance of these resources. It consists of 4 major parts: (1) Introduction, which reviews the literature, habitat, distribution, morphological structure and reproduction; 2) Classification, which describes the classes to which the seaweeds generally belong; 3) Collection and preservation, which explains the procedure used in treatment of specimens; and, 4) Taxonomic list. A glossary is included, covering technical terms used. All species listed and described in this book are macrobenthic and were collected in Panay and Guimaras Islands.
    • Conference paper

      Status of Kappaphycus and Caulerpa farming in Palawan 

      RdD Mundo, RM Cabungcal & ZT Fontanilla - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Status of seaweed industry in the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao 

      SH Sabdani - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center