Now showing items 1-8 of 8

    • Article

      Assessment of the effectiveness of mangrove rehabilitation using exploited and non-exploited indicator species 

      ME Walton, L Le Vay, JH Lebata, J Binas & JH Primavera - Biological Conservation, 2007 - Elsevier
      Mangrove forests have been cleared at an alarming rate over the last century to allow space for settlements, agriculture and aquaculture and are still used today for fuel and construction. However, in the last few decades the value of the range of services and products that mangroves supply are being increasingly appreciated by policy makers. Mangrove replanting is frequently used as a method of restoring ecological function and associated goods and services but this may not be justified as once diverse forests are often replanted with mono-genus stands. In the present study the abundance of the commercially important mud crab Scylla olivacea, a top benthic predator, was used as an indicator of the ecological function of mangrove habitats. Abundance was estimated using catch per unit effort (CPUE) data obtained from an experimental standardized trapping grid. The same commercial traps also catch two other smaller non-exploited competing species, Baptozius vinosus and Thalamita crenata that are discarded by fishers. The relative abundance of these three species was used to separate the effects of habitat from fishing pressure and recruitment limitation. Four sites on Panay Island, central Philippines were selected to represent different types of mangrove habitat; a replanted fringing area predominantly of Rhizophora spp., a natural fringing area predominantly of Sonneratia spp., a diverse natural basin mangrove area and a degraded mangrove site. The relative abundance of mud crabs was found to be equivalent in the natural fringing mangrove (1.89 crabs trap−1 day−1) and the replanted mangrove area (1.71 and 0.81 crabs trap−1 day−1). Lower densities of S. olivacea in the basin mangrove area (0.33 crabs trap−1 day−1) appear to be due to limited recruitment, and at this site there was instead a higher abundance of the other non-commercial crab species. No mud crabs were caught in the degraded mangrove area and CPUE for other crab species was also low. Overall, the study suggests that replanting of mangroves even in mono-genus stands was effective in restoring mud crab populations, indicating recovery of an ecological function to a level equivalent to that of natural mangrove environments. The use of CPUE as an indictor of relative abundance of S. olivacea was supported by single release mark–recapture studies and a multiple release mark–recapture study in the replanted mangrove site.
    • magazineArticle

      Nature parks for environment education and biodiversity in the Philippines 

      T Bagarinao - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1997 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines 

      T Bagarinao - AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 1998 - Springer Verlag
      Public consciousness about biodiversity and the environment, and their importance for sustainable development is not widespread in the Philippines. This article advocates nonformal environment education through nature recreation as a means toward 'greening, the mind and the spirit of the citizens. Information is provided about biodiversity, and the status and potential of nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos in the country. Many of the 116 national parks and protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, and only some provide for recreation-cum-education. The Philippines has no national botanical garden, zoo, or aquarium, and the National Museum is not the proud institution that it should be. Some universities have small museums, botanical gardens, and other biodiversity exhibits for instruction and research, but these and the few zoos and wildlife centers are poorly funded or managed.
    • Article

      Protected areas for biodiversity conservation and environment education in the Philippines. 

      TU Bagarinao - Philippine Journal of Science, 1999 - Science and Technology Information Institute
      The Philippines holds the distinction of having enormous biodiversity with the highest density of endemic species but has the problem of very fast decline in old-growth forests and the highest number of endangered mammal and bird faunas in the world. Among the recorded 53,577 species in the country are 512 unique species of land birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians with 43-73% endemicity. This biodiversity is seriously threatened by habitat destruction due to the expansion of human population and activities. Loss of biodiversity impairs ecosystem functions and results in floods, drought, erosion, pests and diseases, low productivity, and food shortages, with serious socioeconomic consequences. To arrest the loss of biodiversity, in situ conservation is imperative and the remaining natural habitats and biodiversity must be protected. Bu the 73 million Filipinos in 1997 demand more land, water, biological resources, and income. Most Filipinos are unaware about the country's biodiversity and the imperative for conservation. Environment education for the general public is essential, and the nature recreation and ecotourism can be effective means towards "greening" the minds of citizens. The National Integrated Protected Areas System includes 290 sites occupying about four million hectares (about 13% of the countrys' total land area), mostly in the remaining forests, but increasingly more in marine ecosystems in the country. This paper provides information about the biodiversity in the protected areas, their ecotourism status or potential, and the threats to them. Many protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, only some provide for ecotourism, and only a few are actually protected. Some accessible areas should be funded and managed more effectively for ecotourism and public education, but others must be left alone and actively protected. Encounter with nature engender pride in the national heritage, generates responsible citizen action, and helps ensure biodiversity conservation.
    • Article

      Stock enhancement of threatened species in Southeast Asia 

      K Okuzawa, RJ Maliao, ET Quinitio, SMA Buen-Ursua, MJHL Lebata, WG Gallardo, LMB Garcia & J Primavera - Reviews in Fisheries Science, 2008 - Taylor & Francis
      Natural populations of global inshore fisheries are coming under heavy pressure, primarily due to overexploitation and habitat degradation. Stock enhancement of hatchery-reared seeds is perceived as an alternative strategy to enhance the regeneration process. The Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center in the Philippines has been implementing activities related to stock enhancement of donkey’s ear abalone (Haliotis asinina), mud crabs (Scylla spp.), giant clam (Tridacna gigas), seahorses (Hippocampus spp.). Seed production techniques for abalone including a diet tagging method were established and juvenile abalone were released and monitored in a marine protected area. Mud crabs conditioned before release had higher recapture rates compared to the non-conditioned crabs, which can be translated to higher survivorship. Giant clams stocked at 8-10 cm shell length have higher survival 4 mo after stocking (90%), with initial mortalities occurring within the first few days due to transportation stress. Seed production trials for seahorse have begun.
    • Meeting report

      The use of mangroves for aquaculture: Indonesia. 

      A Sunaryanto - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Indonesia has more than 17,500 islands and 81,000 km of coastline which bears the biggest mangrove area in the world, based on the data given by a source in 1982, which stated that mangrove areas was 4.25 million ha or 27 % of the mangrove areas in the world.

      Later data in 1987 and 1993 the total mangrove areas were only 3.23 and 2.49 million ha, respectively, and theses have been reportedly reduced by about 1.0 and 0.8 million ha, respectively, allegedly due to aquaculture. Various sources also supply different data, but generally, the tendency of deforestation in mangrove areas is also shown.

      Brackishwater pond culture was always suspected to be the main cause of the deforestation. Nevertheless, the development of brackishwater pond area does not support the allegations. From the data given by the Directorate General of Fisheries, brackishwater pond area in 1982, 1987 and 1993 are 220,400 ha, 263,200 and 331,800 ha, respectively, which means only about 22% ha (of the 1.0 million ha reduction) and 41% ha (of the 0.8 million ha reduction) may have caused the mangrove area reduction. In reality, not all of the brackishwater ponds are developed in mangrove areas as some of them are in coastal sand areas.
    • Meeting report

      Use of mangroves for aquaculture: Vietnam. 

      NTT Nhung - 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Vietnam has a coastal line of 3600 km with a large wetland (tidal area) area of 600,000 ha (according to the survey statistics of the Institute of Planning and Economics under the Ministry of Fisheries), in which mangrove areas occupy a big part. Before the war, there were about 400,000 ha of mangroves in Vietnam; the largest area located in the South of Vietnam (Mekong River Delta) mainly in Tra Vinh, Soc Trang and Minh Hai. Mangrove forest serves as buffer zone or as biological filter layer. Mangrove is not only a very important ecosystem for forestry and agriculture but plays a decisive role in exploitation, aquaculture and biodiversity yield. Mangrove forests of Vietnam, especially in the South of Vietnam has been the main source of livelihood for farmers and fishermen, for a long time, which until now still occupy a large proportion of the whole country.
    • Article

      Using local user perceptions to evaluate outcomes of protected area management in the Sagay Marine Reserve, Philippines 

      EL Web, RJ Maliao & SV Siar - Environmental Conservation, 2004 - Cambridge University Press
      Local user perceptions of resource trajectory and indicators of protected area outcomes can be useful in the assessment of integrated conservation projects, both marine and terrestrial. In-depth stakeholder surveys using 12 performance indicators were used to evaluate the perceived outcomes of the Sagay Marine Reserve (SMR), the Philippines. These indicators were a measure of whether the SMR had achieved its management objectives in the recent past and what local stakeholders expected in the future. The respondents contextual situation could be correlated with their perceptions of SMR indicators. There was a generally high level of perceived equity and efficiency of SMR management outcomes, but the sustainability of the SMR, particularly the condition of the fisheries, had been poor over the previous 10 years. Few anticipated an improvement in sustainability indicators over the next 10 years. Respondents from an island village within the SMR had more negative (or less positive) perceptions of SMR outcomes because of their high dependence on the degraded resource, combined with physical and economic isolation. Specific remedies to enhance island villagers satisfaction, such as greater participation, empowerment, alternative economic opportunities and fisheries protection, and replenishment, are necessary. This research serves as an example of how indicators perceived by local resource-accessing stakeholders can and should be main components of both marine and terrestrial protected area assessment.