Now showing items 1-3 of 3

    • Article

      Effect of nematode Panagrellus redivivus density on growth, survival, feed consumption and carcass composition of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) larvae 

      CB Santiago, M Ricci & A Reyes-Lampa - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      The study aimed to determine the optimum density of free-living nematodes in feeding bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, larvae. In the first experiment, carp stocked at 25 larvae L−1 were fed varying levels of nematodes (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 per ml) twice a day for 21 days from the start of exogenous feeding. Final body weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in larvae fed 125 and 150 nematodes per ml than in those fed 50 and 75 per ml, but survival was low (61.8 and 63.6%, respectively). Survival rate was highest in larvae fed 100 nematodes ml−1 (81.3%). Carcass analysis showed that larvae fed 125 and 150 nematodes ml−1 had significantly lower body protein and higher body lipid than those fed other nematode densities. Carcass ash was similar for larvae fed 50–100 nematodes ml−1 but it decreased significantly at the higher nematode densities. Carp larvae in a subsequent experiment were given 50, 75 and 100 nematodes ml−1 per feeding. Newly hatched Artemia was the control feed. Nematode consumption and growth of the larvae were determined. Larvae were sampled at intervals of 2–4 days and the nematodes in the gut were counted and measured. At each nematode density, the number of nematodes present in the gut of the larvae increased significantly with time. At each sampling day, the number of nematodes in the gut did not differ significantly among treatments (P > 0.05) although it tended to increase with nematode density at day 2 and day 4 but decrease at day 7 onward. The carp larvae consumed significantly shorter nematodes on day 2 and day 4 than on the succeeding sampling days regardless of nematode density. However, the length of nematodes in the gut of the larvae did not differ significantly among the nematode densities. The final body weight of larvae increased with increasing nematode density. The body weight of larvae fed 100 nematodes ml−1 did not differ significantly from that of larvae given Artemia nauplii. Results show that bighead carp larvae should be fed 100 free-living nematodes per ml at each feeding time.
    • Conference paper

      Evaluation of different live food organisms on growth and survival of river catfish, Mystus nemurus (C&V) larvae 

      MA Laron, MS Kamarudin, FM Yusoff & CR Saad - In CI Henry, G Van Stappen, M Wille & P Sorgeloos (Eds.), Larvi 2001 : 3rd Fish & Shellfish Larviculture Symposium, Gent, Belgium, September 3-6, 2001, 2001 - European Aquaculture Society
      Series: Special Publication No. 30
      Mystus nemurus is one of the most commercially important freshwater fish in Malaysia. Even though artificial breeding or reproduction of M. nemurus is done in private hatcheries around Peninsular Malaysia, inadequate seed supply coupled with relatively high fingerling prices limits its production. Presently, the supply of fingerlings cannot satisfy the demand for fish farming due to some constraints on the larval rearing, so larval rearing of M. nemurus has yet to be improved in terms of nutrition requirement and suitable size of food for the larvae.

      At present, the conventional method of fish larviculture using live food such as Artemia nauplii is being practiced by most Malaysian catfish hatchery operators. Using expensive live food like Artemia has made the mass production of catfish fry/fingerlings less profitable. Alternative measures are necessary in order to help minimize importation and use of Artemia. Indigenous species of live food organisms, which are great potential as feed and can easily be cultured and mass-produced at low cost, may be used as substitutes. Studies on those live foods are lacking, hence this study was conducted to determine the effect of different live foods on growth and survival of Mystus nemurus larvae.
    • Article

      Growth and survival of grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) larvae fed free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus at first feeding 

      OS Reyes, MN Duray, CB Santiago & M Ricci - Aquaculture International, 2011 - European Aquaculture Society
      The free-living nematode, Panagrellus redivivus, was tested as live food for grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae during the first feeding stage. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the acceptability of the free-living nematodes in grouper larvae at first feeding, the optimum nematode density and the response of the larvae to nutritionally enriched nematode. All experiments were conducted in 200-L conical tanks filled with 150-L filtered seawater and stocked at 15 larvae L−1. Duration of feeding experiments was up to day 21 (experiment 1) and 14 days (experiment 2 and 3). Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia (experiment 1) and Brachionus plicatilis alone (experiment 2 & 3) was used as the control treatment. Observations indicated that the grouper larvae readily fed on free-living nematodes as early as 3 days posthatching, the start of exogenous feeding. Optimum feeding density for the larvae was 75 nematodes ml−1. The enrichment of cod liver oil or sunflower oil influenced the total lipids and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids of P. redivivus, which in turn influenced those of the grouper larvae, however, growth and survival of the larvae were not affected (P > 0.05). The results from this investigation showed that the nematode, P. redivivus, can be used as first live food for grouper larvae from the onset of exogenous feeding until they could feed on Artemia nauplii.