Now showing items 1-5 of 5

    • Conference paper

      Government regulations concerning the use of chemicals in aquaculture in Japan 

      MN Wilder - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In Japan, fisheries research activity is of a very diversified nature and is overseen by the national and prefectural governments. Regarding the use of chemicals in aquaculture, various regulations exist to protect the safety of cultured aquatic animals intended for human consumption. Under Japan’s Drug Laws, certain materials are designated as “medical products” for use in humans and animals, and their usage is strictly regulated. This paper introduces aspects of this legislation as relevant to the aquaculture industry and discusses how they are actually applied on the level of operation. Prefectural fish disease centers and extension services engage in the actual supervision of the use of such designated chemicals. In reference to government research structure, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries maintains 29 national research institutes, nine of which are fisheries institutes directly under the Fisheries Agency. The prevention and treatment of fish disease is an important research theme, and programs are being implemented, especially at the National Research Institute of Aquaculture. An auxiliary organ of the Fisheries Agency, the Japan Fisheries Resource Conservation Association operates educational and training programs for employees of prefectural centers and extension services whereby individuals receive certification as fish health specialists.
    • Conference paper

      Human health aspects of the use of chemicals in aquaculture, with special emphasis on food safety and regulations 

      P Sinhaseni, M Limpoka & O Samatiwat - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Safe and wholesome food is essential for good health. Therefore, when one considers health issues related to unsafe foods, recorded morbidity and mortality as well as economic losses in a population must be included. Due to their presence in unsafe food, micro-organisms are generally considered to pose a major risk to human health. In aquaculture, chemicals are used mainly in the treatment and prophylaxis of disease problems, which constitute the largest single cause of economic losses. However, the increasing use of chemicals in aquaculture has led to wide-spread public concern. The concerns related to human health due to chemical use in aquaculture are repeatedly found in the published literature. They include allergic reactions in previously sensitized persons triggered by chemical residues, and the potential impacts on human health resulting from the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria caused by the use of sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics and by antibiotic residues persisting in the sediments of aquaculture environments. This paper discusses the risk evaluation principles, data requirements and the concept of maximum residue limit. The uncertainties inherent in the process include, but are not limited to, the state-of-the-art of toxicological evaluation, the level of understanding of the environmental transport process of chemicals, the exposure data available, and any assumptions and extrapolations.
    • Conference paper

      Preliminary review of the legal framework governing the use of chemicals in aquaculture in Asia 

      A Van Houtte - In JR Arthur, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia : Proceedings of the Meeting on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia 20-22 May 1996, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This preliminary review looks into legislation governing the use of chemicals in aquaculture in Asia. Brief assessments are made of the legislation relating to chemical contamination and the use of veterinary drugs and feed additives, a section is dedicated to trade in aquaculture products, and a few conclusions are then drawn. While mandatory measures of control are desirable and feasible, soft law instruments, such as codes of practice and conduct, allow an element of flexibility to be maintained while avoiding undue legislative restraints on scientific and technical progress.
    • Conference paper

      The role of quarantine in preventing the spread of serious pathogens of aquatic animals in Southeast Asia 

      JR Arthur - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Quarantine, in the strict sense, is the confinement of aquatic animals of unknown or questionable health status in secure facilities such that neither they nor any pathogens they may be carrying can escape into the external environment. During the period of quarantine, the animals are observed, tested, and treatment may be applied, and a decision will be made as to whether or not they should be released to the external environment. While the concept of quarantine for aquatic animals has existed for many years, within the current framework of "national biosecurity", quarantine is seen as one of a number of risk mitigation options that governments can apply to reduce the likelihood of serious pathogens being introduced with the importation of live aquatic animals and their products. Although the concept of quarantine is relatively simple, its effective implementation may be complex, due to the need for specialized infrastructure, capability and expertise. Several Southeast Asian countries have considered or attempted to implement border quarantine for live aquatic animals; however, these efforts have met with little success. This has been due to a number of reasons, including failure to carefully define the scope and purpose of quarantine within a national aquatic animal health program, the diversity of forms in which trade occurs, the sheer volume of commodity traded, the lack of simple and accurate diagnostics tests for some pathogens, and the limited capital and human resources that governments are able to commit to this effort. To improve this situation, risk analysis can be used to determine whether or not the importation of a given commodity (living aquatic animal or its product) poses an unacceptable disease risk to national biosecurity. In those cases where an unacceptably high level of risk exists, possible risk mitigation measures can then be examined to determine what actions, if any, can be applied to reduce the risk to within the country's appropriate level of protection (ALOP). In this way, quarantine, as one of a suite of possible risk reduction measures, can be applied effectively on a case-by-case basis to reduce the risk of introduction, establishment and spread of serious aquatic animal pathogens into new areas.
    • Conference paper

      The role of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) in health improvement of aquatic animals 

      Y Oketani - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discusses the roles of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) in aquatic animal health. The main objectives of OIE are to: ensure transparency in the global animal disease situation; collect, analysis and disseminate scientific veterinary information; contribute expertise and encourage international solidarity in the control of animal diseases; to safeguard world trade in animals and animal products; improve the legal framework and resources of Veterinary Services; and to provide a better guarantee of the safety of food animal origin and to promote animal welfare through a science-based approach.