Browsing by Subject "Urbanization"
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Oral presentation- In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe paper aims to present a comparative economic evaluation of different pond culture systems for prawn (Penaeus monodon) and shrimp (P. indicus and P. merguiensis) using standard economic tools and methods of analysis. The different culture systems include extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of prawns and shrimps and the extensive polyculture of these species with milkfish (Chanos chanos). Data used in the analysis were taken from both SEAFDEC AQD and industry experience. The technical data were gathered from researchers and private sector experiences in prawn and shrimp farming. Financial estimates were determined after the peculiarities of aquaculture vis-a-vis other business ventures in agriculture and industry were taken into consideration. The study shows that the extensive monoculture of prawns and the extensive polyculture of prawn with shrimp and milkfish are profitable culture systems. Return on investment (ROI) and payback period for prawn extensive monoculture systems range from 10 to 65% and from 1.4 to 8.6 years, respectively. For polyculture systems, ROI ranges from 8 to 85% and payback period from 1.1 to 10.5 years. The semi-intensive culture of prawn shows moderate results. This is largely due to higher capital requirements for semi-intensive culture as compared to extensive culture. The extensive and semi-intensive monoculture of shrimps on the other hand show poor results, with semi-intensive monoculture registering net losses after all costs are considered.
Imperatives for the future development of prawn culture in the Cochin backwater system (Kerala, India). - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterA traditional system of prawn culture practised in the Cochin Backwater System, the largest backwater system in Kerala State, has an estimated yield of 4,000 tons from about 4,500 ha. Governmental investments to encourage prawn production on a scientific basis continue to grow with the dual objective of improving the socio-economic conditions of fisherfolks and augmenting prawn exports. A geographic study of land and water uses and an assessment of environmental impact of these uses point to basic incompatibilities of city expansion and semi-intensive prawn culture. Population growth, urban expansion and industrial development projections for Cochin City and its surrounding areas support the view that water quality will deteriorate further making culture of prawns for export a difficult proposition. Functioning horizontal-communications between city and fisheries planning units are essential as are improvements in environmental protection than presently evident. Attention is directed towards examining other options for improving socio-economic conditions of fisherfolks and increasing prawn production and developing public policy for protecting prawn culture areas elsewhere.
A preliminary economic analysis for extensive and semi-intensive shrimp culture in South Carolina, U.S.A. - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterSouth Carolina has some 28,500 ha of impounded coastal wetlands. These impoundments are remnants of the rice culture industry of the 19th century and are now of interest for waterflow management and possibly aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the potential for extensive commercial culture of shrimp in salt-marsh impoundments with that for semi-intensive production of shrimp in highland ponds. A hypothetical farm consisting of four 8-ha impoundments or ponds was chosen as the basis for the analysis, and it was assumed that only one crop of shrimp could be produced per year. Two alternative strategies for stocking the impoundments were evaluated: option 1, stock by natural recruitment via tide gates; option 2, stock at low density (25,000/ha) with hatchery-reared postlarvae. Highland ponds were to be stocked at a density of 75,000 PL/ha with hatchery-reared animals. Major fixed costs other than land purchase were considered, including renovation of existing impoundments by cross-diking to form 8-ha units and addition of extra tide gates. Estimates of annual and variable costs for postlarvae (where applicable), feed, labor, chemicals, pumping, supplies, vehicle use, mowing, interest, overhead, and miscellaneous items were also included in the analysis. Results indicated that extensive shrimp culture in salt water impoundments is likely to be a break-even or profitable activity for production levels of 90 kg whole shrimp/ha for stocking option 1, while option 2 would require yields of ≥225 kg/ha. In comparison, semi-intensive culture in highland ponds is likely to be successful if yields of ≥ 800 kg/ha are obtained. This preliminary analysis suggests that both extensive and semi-intensive culture of shrimp may be economically feasible in South Carolina, but this potential is as yet un-proven and shrimp aquaculture must be considered a high risk venture in this area.