Now showing items 1-20 of 22

    • Conference paper

      Biological hazard possibly produced by aquaculture and its control 

      Y Inui - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Blooms of Neterocapsa circularisquama, a novel dinoflagellate, have been causing mass mortality of both wild and cultured shellfish in embayments at the western part of Japan since 1988. Physiological and epidemiological studies suggest that the alga has been partly dispersed with the movement of shellfish in aquaculture activities.

      A recent outbreak of an epizootic iridovirus in red sea bream (Pagrus major) has caused extensive damage to marine fish culture in Japan. A research group at the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA), collaborating with prefectural fisheries research laboratories and an R&D company, clarified the etiology and developed a diagnostic method and a commercial vaccine.

      Penaeid acute viremia (PAV), a synonym of white spot syndrome, caused catastrophic loses in kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) culture in Japan. An epidemiological study of the research group at NRIA and the prefectural fisheries research laboratories strongly suggests that the causative virus was newly introduced to Japan from imported shrimp seeds for aquaculture. The group clarified the etiology and established diagnostic methods. Based on their studies, NRIA proposed a protocol to check the virus during larval culture and before seedlings are shipped.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of koi herpesvirus disease in Taiwan 

      C Tu, SY Lin & HT Sung - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The first reported case of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) occurred in northern Taiwan in December 2002. Later, there were three more cases in 2003 and one outbreak of KHVD in 2004. Externally, the affected fish did not show any prominent lesions except swollen gills sometimes accompanied by bleeding. Consistent histopathological findings were in the gill tissues, where hyperplasic epithelia and eosinophilic granular cells were observed within fused secondary lamellae. Electron microscopy revealed negativelystained icosahedral viral nucleocapsids measuring 112?1 nm in diameter. Also, the koi herpesvirus was detected in the homogenate of diseased fish by PCR assay using specific primers for koi herpesvirus (KHV). The amplicon was cloned, sequenced and compared with previously published data. The sequenced data showed 99% identity with the American KHV sequence in the GenBank. The above evidence suggests that KHVD have already invaded carp culture systems in Taiwan.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Cambodia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      B Racy - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Cambodia. The following were given focus of the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Indonesia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      A Sunarto, Widodo, Taukhid, I Koesharyani, H Supriyadi, L Gardenia, B Sugianti & D Rukmono - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Indonesia. The following were given focus in the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Malaysia: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      FA Latiff - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Malaysia. The following were given focus in the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Myanmar: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      NY Saw - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Myanmar. The following were given focus in the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Singapore: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      LK Huat, S Kueh & PY Kwang - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Singapore. The following were given focus in the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in Thailand: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      S Kanchanakhan - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Thailand. The following were given focus in the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Current status of transboundary fish diseases in the Philippines: Occurrence, surveillance, research and training 

      SE Regidor, JD Albaladejo & JR Somga - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discussed the current status of transboundary fish diseases in Philippines. The following were given focus in the paper: status of Koi Herpesvirus in the production of common carp and koi and the status of viral diseases in the production of shrimps and prawn. Surveillance, monitoring and diagnosis of diseases of aquatic animals and the quarantine services to prevent entry of diseases of aquatic animals were also discussed.
    • Conference paper

      Disease management in shrimp farming 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In S Subasinghe & T Singh (Eds.), Production and Marketing of Shrimp: Trends & Outlook. Proceedings of Shrimp 2001 Chennai, The Fourth World Conference on the Shrimp Industry and Trade and Buyer-Seller Meet, 27-29 September 2001, Chennai, India, 2002 - INFOFISH
      Shrimp monoculture systems have been beset with devastating losses due to infectious diseases and environmental deterioration. On a global scale, efforts to make shrimp culture a sustainable industry are warranted because of the high value and demand of shrimp. A Code of Practice for Sustainable Shrimp Farming prepared by the Global Aquaculture Alliance has been adopted by various shrimp producing countries addressing issues like mangroves, site evaluation, design and construction, feeds and feed use, shrimp health management, therapeutic agents and other chemicals, general pond operations, effluents and solid wastes, and community and employee relations.

      Shrimp hatcheries have benefited from technological advances in practically every aspect of rearing including implements to control water quality, eliminate pathogens, and improved nutrition through innovative artificial feeds and supplements. These technologies have made postlarval production very successful, although in many cases, high survival cannot exactly be equated with good quality. Thus a closer look at hatcheries is essential to ensure that rearing protocols match the conditions to which postlarvae will be exposed to upon stocking in ponds. Compiled information on the estimated number of hatcheries and forms in major shrimp growing areas in Asia show a relatively smaller number of small independent hatcheries compared to farms, which demonstrates that effective disease control programmes need to emanate from hatcheries. Presently, three programmes for the hatchery need serious attention. These are (a) the continued implementation of fry analysis procedures, not only as a marketing tool, but so as to exclude pathogenic organisms from ponds, (b) adherence to agreed-upon codes of practice and conformity with accepted guidelines on live transfers to minimise disease spread, and (c) development of a reliable source of domesticated broodstock and incorporating specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) stocks in these programmes to minimise or eliminate dependence on wild broodstock.

      One of the main constraints is the lack of cost-effective and efficient methods to prevent and correct environmental deterioration, and to maintain biosecurity. In addition to providing primary health care, disease control strategies should be a combination of pathogen exclusion and environmental management: the former for primary pathogens such as viruses and the latter for secondary pathogens like bacteria, whose pathogenicity is heightened by environmental degradation and lowered resistance of shrimps. Shrimp forming should start employing systems to manage and lessen waste and the outflow of organic pollutants that could contribute to self-pollution or deterioration of the quality of receiving waters. These include improved feeds and conversion ratios to make feed utilisation more economical and efficient, implementation of recirculating or zero discharge technology, improving the efficiency of aeration systems, improvement of pond siting, understanding of the pond ecosystem and the role of microbes in the environment. In addition to implementing disease control measures and ensuring product quality in various industry sectors, approaches need to be welded together for a holistic approach to health management.
    • Conference paper

      Establishment of method managing aquaculture environmnets to allow sustainable production. 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In Studies on Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2001 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
    • Conference paper

      Experience on common carp mass mortality in Japan 

      M Sano, T Ito, J Kurita, K Yuasa, S Miwa & T Iida - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The mortality rate among common carp for food reared in net pens in Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan, in Ibaraki Prefecture, increased from early October 2003 and koi herpesvirus (KHV) was detected in the affected fish by the National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA) in late October using PCR methods of Gilad et al. (2002) and Gray et al. (2002). The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan officially announced the first occurrence of KHV disease in Japan. In late October 2003, the water temperature of Lake Kasumigaura was 16-180C and the fish losses were severe, particularly in market-sized carp. The apparent symptoms of affected fish were presence of mucus-like substance on the body surface, sunken eyes, and pale and necrotic gills, which were similar to those reported by Hedrick et al. (2000). Approximately 1,200 metric tons of common carp cultured in the lake were lost by mid-November. Prior to this, however, infected carp cultured in Lake Kasumigaura had already been transferred to farms, wholesalers, restaurants and game fishing facilities. Consequently, the infection spread to other areas in Japan. Independent of the outbreak in Lake Kasumigaura, a massive carp loss of over 10 thousand fish, the cause of which was initially diagnosed as columnaris disease, occurred in some rivers and a lake in Okayama Prefecture from late May to mid-July 2003. In November, the NRIA detected KHV DNA by PCR from samples of the diseased fish stored in a freezer. This demonstrated that KHV was present in Japan before late May 2003. By the end of 2003, KHV was detected in carp from 23 out of 47 prefectures in Japan. No occurrence of the disease was observed during the winter period. However, as the water temperature increased in spring of 2004, KHV reappeared in the area where the disease had been previously recorded, and also in new places. In many of the facilities that experienced KHV outbreak in 2003, the disease was not observed by June 2004 because all carp had been removed together with other fish species and the facilities were disinfected thoroughly after the outbreaks. From January to the end of May 2004, KHV infections were reported in 24 of 47 prefectures in Japan.
    • Book

      Health management in aquaculture 

      GD Lio-Po & Y Inui - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A textbook on diseases of cultured warmwater fish and shrimps in the Philippines. Eleven chapters cover essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps, and methods of prevention and control. Emphasis is made on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Included also are topics on harmful algae, immunology and molecular biological diagnostic techniques.
    • Book chapter

      Infectious diseases of warmwater fish in fresh water 

      GD Lio-Po & LHS Lim - In PTK Woo, DW Bruno & LHS Lim (Eds.), Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture, 2002 - CAB International
    • Conference paper

      New developments in marine prawn disease research in south east Asia. 

      MCL Baticados - In SH Cheah & S Thalathiah (Eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture. Proceedings of a Seminar Organized by the Malaysian Fisheries Society and the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, 17 August 1989, Kuala Lumpur, 1992 - Malaysian Fisheries Society. Occasional Publication No. 6
      Researches on marine shrimp diseases for the past three years centered primarily on the diagnosis and control of viral and bacterial infections as well as nutritional, toxic and environmental diseases. Diagnostic techniques developed or adopted recently for prawn viruses include the ELISA technique for detecting baculoviruses, acridine orange fluorescence, eosin flourescence and in vitro culture of the Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) on lymphoid organ-derived monolayer culture. Studies have been conducted on the identification, pathogenicity and chemical control of bacteria causing luminous vibriosis and shell disease. Investigations on non-infections diseases such as the chronic soft-shell syndrome, blue shrimp disease and aflatoxicosis elucidated the factors responsible for the development of these diseases. Current research on marine shrimp diseases, other related problems and recommendations are discussed.
    • Article

      Occurrence and pathology of Penaeus monodon baculovirus infection in hatcheries and ponds in the Philippines. 

      MCL Baticados, CL Pitogo, MG Paner, LD de la Peña & EA Tendencia - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Samples from Penaeus monodon hatcheries (2-3 day old larvae or Zoea 1 to 34 day old post larvae or PL34) and ponds (15 to 159 days old in the pond) were histologically examined for the presence of eosinophilic occlusion bodies in hypertrophied nuclei of the hepatopancreas which is indicative of P. monodon baculovirus infection. The earliest stage found infected in the hatcheries was PL3. Infected shrimp from ponds had slow growth rates and generally pale yellow to reddish brown hepatopancreata. The infection was also characterized by the necrosis and degeneration of the hepatopancreatic tubules with secondary bacterial invasion.
    • Conference paper

      Progress and current status of diagnostic techniques for marine fish viral diseases at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department 

      GD Lio-Po, ER Cruz-Lacierda, LD de la Peña, Y Maeno & Y Inui - In Y Inui & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia – Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings … Aquaculture in Southeast Asia – Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The incidence of unexplained mortalities among marine finfish in the Philippines has been increasingly observed. Considering that outbreaks of viral infections affecting similarly cultured marine fishes such as grouper and seabass were reported in many countries, a comprehensive diagnostic program to meet the challenge was initiated at the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC-AQD)with funding from the Japanese Trust Fund Fish Disease Project. This activity was further boosted by the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS). Overall, the program involved the staff of the marine finfish hatchery and the Fish Health Section. Cases of unexplained mortalities observed in the hatchery were referred to the Fish Health Section. Detailed information on the culture histories of each case were provided by the hatchery staff. Diagnostic tests were performed on each case and those with potential indication of viral etiology were processed for virus detection. Presumptive diagnosis of viral infections was based on typical signs, cell culture isolation histopathology and in-vivo pathogenicity tests. Confirmatory tests to identify specific viruses include RT-PCR, FAT and electron microscopy. The highlights of outbreaks of viral nervous necrosis and other virus-associated infections among marine finfish at SEAFDEC-AQD are presented.
    • Conference paper

      Recent trends in fish diseases in Japan 

      H Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Losses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
    • Conference paper

      Research and training on fish diseases at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in 2000-2004: A review 

      K Nagasawa - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This paper reviews various research and training activities on fish diseases at the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) in Iloilo, Philippines. The activities were implemented through the "Regional Fish Disease Project" of the Government of Japan Trust Fund starting in March 2000. A total of 29 research studies were conducted from 2000-2004 in the following aspects: (1) establishment and standardization of diagnostic methods; (2) biology and pathogenesis of disease pathogens; (3) disease prevention and control; (4) establishment of evaluation methods for residual chemicals in aquaculture products; and (5) epizootiology and prevention of koi herpesvirus disease. Some of these studies were conducted by scientists from the Department of Fisheries in Thailand, and from the Marine Fisheries Research Department (MFRD) of SEAFDEC in Singapore. Two sessions of hands-on training on "Important Viral Diseases of Shrimp and Marine Fish" was implemented in 2002 and 2003. Participants from the SEAFDEC member countries were funded by the project to attend the training course. The course consisted of both lecture and practical hands-on sessions. The latter focused on the use of molecular tools and other important techniques in the diagnosis of viral diseases of shrimp and marine fish. This review also provides information on publications such as proceedings, manuals, review articles, scientific papers, terminal report, annual reports, flyers, pamphlets and others as the outputs of research activities and international meetings that were organized with financial support from the project.
    • magazineArticle

      Shrimp culture: a global overview 

      WG Yap - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center