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    • Conference paper

      Collection, storage, transport, and acclimation of milkfish fry and fingerlings 

      AC Villaluz - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre; Island Publishing House, Inc.
      The present methods of collecting fry and fingerlings involve filtration by mobile or stationary devices. The bottom topography of the fry ground, wind direction, and tidal fluctuations are the most important considerations in the design and construction of fry and fingerling catching gear. The behavior of young milkfish (Chanos chanos ) in the different environments where they are exploited determines the catching methods to be employed. Collection, handling, storage, and transport activities expose the fish to undue stress, which contributes to poor survival. The simple method of lowering the salinity of the water medium considerably reduces mortality. Prior acclimation history has significant effects on subsequent survival and adaptation. Although it appears that milkfish fry are more hardy than the fingerlings, both have the same capability for resisting subsequent environmental stress provided sufficient time is given for the fish to recover from previous stress.
    • Conference paper

      Milkfish nursery pond and pen culture in the Indo-Pacific region 

      DD Baliao - In JV Juario, RP Ferraris & LV Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1984 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre; Island Publishing House, Inc.
      In culturing milkfish (Chanos chanos ) to marketable size, the fry (total length = 12-15 mm) are usually reared first in nursery ponds or pens (hapa nets) until they become fingerlings (total length = 2 cm or more). The fingerlings are then transferred to the grow-out ponds or pens where they are reared to marketable size. In some countries like the Philippines, fingerling production has become an industry by itself. This paper reviews the state of the art and constraints to and suggests future research directions for milkfish fingerling production in nursery ponds and pens.